Which treatment technique is generally unnecessary in young children?
Which treatment technique may be difficult to perform in children due to decreased ability to follow directions?
Which treatment techniques are useful in children regardless of age?
ART, MET, FPR, lymphatics, BLT, cranial
Indirect, may be able to use direct as they get older
Compression of the jugular foramen may cause dysfunction of tongue motion, resulting in ______ in kids. Which CNs?
Compression of the jugular foramen may cause dysfunction of tongue motion, resulting in poor suck in kids
CN 9, 12
Compression of the jugular foramen may cause dysfunction of intestinal peristalsis, resulting in ____, _____, and ________ in kids. Which CNs?
Compression of the jugular foramen may cause dysfunction of intestinal peristalsis, resulting in constipation, GERD, and contribute to colic in kids
Compression of the jugular foramen may cause dysfunction of SCM/trapezius motion, resulting in ______ in kids. Which CN(s)?
Compression of the jugular foramen may cause dysfunction of SCM/trapezius motion, resulting in torticollis in kids
Which spinal curvature is developed in infants? Which curvatures develop later?
C-Spine has slight lordosis, increases as baby supports own head
Thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis develops later
When do the anterior fontanelles close?
When do the posterior fontanelles close?
When do the sphenoid fontanelles close?
When do the mastoid fontanelles close?
Which cranial bone is most commonly dysfunctional in infants?
Dysfunction of which cranial bone affects the most cranial nerves?
Infants have increased likelihood of otitis media if temporal bone is rotated how?
Operative vaginal delivery cause palsies in which cranial nerves?
CN 6 - lateral rectus palsy
CN 7 - Facial palsy
Why might internal rotation of the temporal bone cause otitis media in children?
Eustachian tube is flatter in infants than adults
Rotation blocks drainage of tube => increased risk of infection
How can you tell synostosis from positional plagiocephaly on physical exam?
Synostosis - symmetrical forehead and eyes
Positional plagiocephaly - forehead protrudes on one side/parallelogram-shaped head
What is craniosynostosis?
Abnormal fusion of head sutures
What kind of cranial somatic dysfunction causes plagiocephaly?
What positional head deformity is frequently associated with torticollis?
What kind of cranial somatic dysfunction causes brachycephaly?
Vertical strain/Flexion strain
Head is wider than it is long, flat back of the head
What kind of cranial somatic dysfunction causes scaphocephaly?
Head is long and narrow
What CN may be irritated to cause torticollis? What muscle does this affect?
CN 11 (spinal accessory)
SCM - short and ropy
Where would OMT be localized to treat torticollis?
Use MFR, BLT, MET, chapman's points...etc
How are most cranial somatic dysfunctions in infants treated?
Self-treated through crying and sucking
3 techniques to use to treat cranial somatic dysfunction in infants?
Balanced membranous OR ligamentous tension
Venous sinus release
Indirect treatments!! Can also do MFR, suboccipital release, lymphatics
Bone development in school-age children
Cranium - fully ossified
Sinuses - fully formed
Epiphyseal plates - Still developing, may develop length discrepancy => short leg syndrome/functional scoliosis
School-age children have avg of _____ URIs per year
Avg 6-8 URIs a year
Risk from school, smoke exposure
Do lymphatics, viscerosomatics
Which sinuses are present at birth?
Around what age do sinuses typically reach their adult size?
12-15, teen years