Flashcards in Lectures Deck (71):
How can we use speleothems to show a change in climate?
Absolute carbon dating based on radiation emitted
How can friendly neighbours cause collapse?
-Dependence on a vital import
-Weakening of a trade partner
-Friends who are friends of enimies
How can cultural values contribute to collapse?
-Religious views can prevent a society from changing
-Cultural customs may limit a society to one specific area based on limitations of recourses
-Cultural views on power may prevent positive interactions with others
What is the difference between Ultimate and Proximate factors?
-Ultimate is the Underlying factors
-Proximate is the final blow
What was the environmental catalyst for Norse Greenland societal collapse?
Mini ice age, much colder
What are the 4 causes of Norse Greenland demise?
Failure to adapt
Too little too late
When did the Norse first settle Greenland?
980's, led by Erik the Red
When did the Norse disappear from Greenland?
Just after 1410 when the last message was sent
What disease did the Norse Greenlanders suffer from?
Middle ear disease, shows poor nutrition
What was life expectancy at the end of Norse Greenland?
Less than 30
Why did the Norse Greenland population struggle to reproduce?
Death of young females due to poor conditions
Compared with the Norse, how did the local natives fare at the time of Norse collapse?
They were flourishing due to correct adaption to climate
Why did the Norse fail to adapt?
Cultural views and Christianity, thought that the ways of the Inuit were unholy
Where does the name Anasazi mean?
The Ancient Ones
Where were the Anasazi located?
South west USA, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, Colorado
How long did the Anasazi live for?
600 years, 600-1200Ad
What was the population of the Anasazi?
30,000-100,000 depending on estimates
What tragedy in North Italy was caused by a failure to react to a problem?
The Vajont Dam disaster
How can crowd phycology lead to collapse?
Following of methods or actions
Why did Easter island loose all trees?
Deforested for creation of island statues
How can we track the climate of Easter Island?
Using lake varves from 3 volcanic craters
Name the 5 main methods for climate dating societal collapse?
Name examples of societal collapse?
Easter Island, Roman, Greek, Aztec, Maya, Anasazi, Egypt, Inca and Norse Greenland
Define societal collapse?
The fall of a complex human society?
How can lake varves be used to show climate change?
Sediment at the lake bed, light layer = summer and dark layer = winter, the width tell us time period
What are the 5 climate characteristics of the Anasazi habitat today?
Low plant growth rates
What do we know about past Anasazi climates?
Much wetter and milder than today
Which Anasazi tribes used higher elevations to survive?
Mongollon, Mes Verde
Which Anasazi tribes used lower elevations to survive?
Which Anasazi tribes utilised rainfall collection methods?
Which Anasazi tribes had sited near springs?
Mimbres and Chaco
How can we few past climates using ice cores?
Using the heavy deuterium isotope, large quantities means a cold climate
Why do hostile neighbours lead to collapse?
Proximity, sharing of recourses
How can we use coral for dating?
Uranium emission, form of carbon dating
What is Dendrochronology and how can it be used for dating?
Tree rings, light ring equally summer and dark equally winter, larger rings means period of favourable conditions
What is PMA in the context of the Anasazi?
Pack rat Midded Analysis, study droppings to show past vegetation and ground coverage
What 4 things must a society fail to act on the collapse?
- a problem
What is Niche Appropriation?
The over use of just 1 rescource
What are the Proximate causes of Anasazi demise?
Lack of water-Anasazi
Why did the success of the Anasazi lead to its downfall?
What did over use of channel agriculture lead to?
Arroyo channel cutting
At the end of Anasazi reign, how far did they go to collect timber?
50miles, 1000m elevation
What evidence of violence at the time of Anasazi collapse is there?
Why did the Anasazi run out of water?
Poor agricultural methods, poor water retention
Why did the Anasazi start to disappear?
Prolonged drought, resource mismanagement
How many trees were cut down to make Pueblo Benito?
How tall was the highest Anasazi structure?
What was the peak population of Easter Island?
What 5 human activities environmental collapse?
Why is Easter Island a good example of collapse?
Isolated from the outside world
Who inhabited Easter Island?
The Rapa Nui
When did the Rapa Nui inhabit Easter Island?
How to societies lead to environmental damage?
Living in a fragile environment
Over harvesting materials
Manipulation of land
Why did the Rapa Nui not try and solve the effects of deforestation and climate change?
They did not perceive the problems as negative
What are intrinsic cultural factors?
Factors that hold a society together
What is a renewable rescource?
One that naturally recovers itself
What 5 things cause societal collapse?
Friendly Neighbours, Hostile Neighbours, Intrinsic Cultural Factors, Climate Change, Environmental Damage
Where did the original settlers of Greenland come from?
How long did the Norse flourish in Greenland?
Which Viking discovered the demise of the Vikings?
What did Ivar Bardarson find when he arrived in Greenland?
Cattle and few other domestic animals
Where did scientists look to find information from the Norse Greenlanders?
How far did the Norse empire stretch for?
From Scandinavia, east across Russia and south to the Mediterranean
Where is the only site where the Vikings landed on the American continent?
L'anse Aux Meadows
How many people lived in Greenland at peak time before collapse?
What led to the poor health of the Vikings ?
Poor living conditions
How are flies used to indentify living conditions?
Certain species breed in decaying animal matter, or other places that can determine climatic situation
What project in Greenland produces ice cores used for climate analysis?
GISP2, Greenland ice sheet program
What do high duterium levels show?
Summer time, or warm periods
Why are the Norse Greenlanders seen to be taking too much hay?
Not enough grass to sustain the population.