Lectures Flashcards Preview

Societal Collapse > Lectures > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lectures Deck (71):
1

How can we use speleothems to show a change in climate?

Absolute carbon dating based on radiation emitted

2

How can friendly neighbours cause collapse?

-Decreased support
-Dependence on a vital import
-Weakening of a trade partner
-Friends who are friends of enimies

3

How can cultural values contribute to collapse?

-Religious views can prevent a society from changing
-Cultural customs may limit a society to one specific area based on limitations of recourses
-Cultural views on power may prevent positive interactions with others

4

What is the difference between Ultimate and Proximate factors?

-Ultimate is the Underlying factors
-Proximate is the final blow

5

What was the environmental catalyst for Norse Greenland societal collapse?

Mini ice age, much colder

6

What are the 4 causes of Norse Greenland demise?

Failure to adapt
Too little too late
Cultural Conservatism
Climate

7

When did the Norse first settle Greenland?

980's, led by Erik the Red

8

When did the Norse disappear from Greenland?

Just after 1410 when the last message was sent

9

What disease did the Norse Greenlanders suffer from?

Middle ear disease, shows poor nutrition

10

What was life expectancy at the end of Norse Greenland?

Less than 30

11

Why did the Norse Greenland population struggle to reproduce?

Death of young females due to poor conditions

12

Compared with the Norse, how did the local natives fare at the time of Norse collapse?

They were flourishing due to correct adaption to climate

13

Why did the Norse fail to adapt?

Cultural views and Christianity, thought that the ways of the Inuit were unholy

14

Where does the name Anasazi mean?

The Ancient Ones

15

Where were the Anasazi located?

South west USA, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, Colorado

16

How long did the Anasazi live for?

600 years, 600-1200Ad

17

What was the population of the Anasazi?

30,000-100,000 depending on estimates

18

What tragedy in North Italy was caused by a failure to react to a problem?

The Vajont Dam disaster

19

How can crowd phycology lead to collapse?

Following of methods or actions

20

Why did Easter island loose all trees?

Deforested for creation of island statues

21

How can we track the climate of Easter Island?

Using lake varves from 3 volcanic craters

22

Name the 5 main methods for climate dating societal collapse?

Tree rings
Lake Varves
Soeleothems
Coral
Ice Cores

23

Name examples of societal collapse?

Easter Island, Roman, Greek, Aztec, Maya, Anasazi, Egypt, Inca and Norse Greenland

24

Define societal collapse?

The fall of a complex human society?

25

How can lake varves be used to show climate change?

Sediment at the lake bed, light layer = summer and dark layer = winter, the width tell us time period

26

What are the 5 climate characteristics of the Anasazi habitat today?

Fragile ecosystems
Poor soils
Low rainfall
Low plant growth rates
Major droughts

27

What do we know about past Anasazi climates?

Much wetter and milder than today

28

Which Anasazi tribes used higher elevations to survive?

Mongollon, Mes Verde

29

Which Anasazi tribes used lower elevations to survive?

Hohokam

30

Which Anasazi tribes utilised rainfall collection methods?

Hohokam

31

Which Anasazi tribes had sited near springs?

Mimbres and Chaco

32

How can we few past climates using ice cores?

Using the heavy deuterium isotope, large quantities means a cold climate

33

Why do hostile neighbours lead to collapse?

Proximity, sharing of recourses

Hostility, war

34

How can we use coral for dating?

Uranium emission, form of carbon dating

35

What is Dendrochronology and how can it be used for dating?

Tree rings, light ring equally summer and dark equally winter, larger rings means period of favourable conditions

36

What is PMA in the context of the Anasazi?

Pack rat Midded Analysis, study droppings to show past vegetation and ground coverage

37

What 4 things must a society fail to act on the collapse?

Fail to
Anticipate
Perceive
Attempt
Solve
- a problem

38

What is Niche Appropriation?

The over use of just 1 rescource

39

What are the Proximate causes of Anasazi demise?

Deforestation-Anasazi
Salinisation-Hohokam
Cold-Mesa Verde
Lack of water-Anasazi
Poor Soil-Mogollon
Arroyo Cutting-Chaco

40

Why did the success of the Anasazi lead to its downfall?

Overpopulation

41

What did over use of channel agriculture lead to?

Arroyo channel cutting

42

At the end of Anasazi reign, how far did they go to collect timber?

50miles, 1000m elevation

43

What evidence of violence at the time of Anasazi collapse is there?

Canalbalism

44

Why did the Anasazi run out of water?

Poor agricultural methods, poor water retention

45

Why did the Anasazi start to disappear?

Prolonged drought, resource mismanagement

46

How many trees were cut down to make Pueblo Benito?

250,000

47

How tall was the highest Anasazi structure?

6 stories

48

What was the peak population of Easter Island?

20,000

49

What 5 human activities environmental collapse?

Over farming
Alien invasion
Habitat destruction
Islandisation
Pollution

50

Why is Easter Island a good example of collapse?

Isolated from the outside world

51

Who inhabited Easter Island?

The Rapa Nui

52

When did the Rapa Nui inhabit Easter Island?

800-1200Ad

53

How to societies lead to environmental damage?

Living in a fragile environment

Over harvesting materials

Manipulation of land

54

Why did the Rapa Nui not try and solve the effects of deforestation and climate change?

They did not perceive the problems as negative

55

What are intrinsic cultural factors?

Factors that hold a society together

56

What is a renewable rescource?

One that naturally recovers itself

57

What 5 things cause societal collapse?

Friendly Neighbours, Hostile Neighbours, Intrinsic Cultural Factors, Climate Change, Environmental Damage

58

Where did the original settlers of Greenland come from?

Norway

59

How long did the Norse flourish in Greenland?

5 Centuries

60

Which Viking discovered the demise of the Vikings?

Ivar Bardarson

61

What did Ivar Bardarson find when he arrived in Greenland?

Cattle and few other domestic animals

62

Where did scientists look to find information from the Norse Greenlanders?

Rubbish midden

63

How far did the Norse empire stretch for?

From Scandinavia, east across Russia and south to the Mediterranean

64

Where is the only site where the Vikings landed on the American continent?

L'anse Aux Meadows

65

How many people lived in Greenland at peak time before collapse?

6,000

66

What led to the poor health of the Vikings ?

Poor living conditions

67

How are flies used to indentify living conditions?

Certain species breed in decaying animal matter, or other places that can determine climatic situation

68

What project in Greenland produces ice cores used for climate analysis?

GISP2, Greenland ice sheet program

69

What do high duterium levels show?

Summer time, or warm periods

70

Why are the Norse Greenlanders seen to be taking too much hay?

Not enough grass to sustain the population.

71

When did the Norse finally turn to native animals as a source of food?

After they had run out of all other foods, too little too late