Flashcards in Lectures Deck (71)
How can we use speleothems to show a change in climate?
Absolute carbon dating based on radiation emitted
How can friendly neighbours cause collapse?
-Dependence on a vital import
-Weakening of a trade partner
-Friends who are friends of enimies
How can cultural values contribute to collapse?
-Religious views can prevent a society from changing
-Cultural customs may limit a society to one specific area based on limitations of recourses
-Cultural views on power may prevent positive interactions with others
What is the difference between Ultimate and Proximate factors?
-Ultimate is the Underlying factors
-Proximate is the final blow
What was the environmental catalyst for Norse Greenland societal collapse?
Mini ice age, much colder
What are the 4 causes of Norse Greenland demise?
Failure to adapt
Too little too late
When did the Norse first settle Greenland?
980's, led by Erik the Red
When did the Norse disappear from Greenland?
Just after 1410 when the last message was sent
What disease did the Norse Greenlanders suffer from?
Middle ear disease, shows poor nutrition
What was life expectancy at the end of Norse Greenland?
Less than 30
Why did the Norse Greenland population struggle to reproduce?
Death of young females due to poor conditions
Compared with the Norse, how did the local natives fare at the time of Norse collapse?
They were flourishing due to correct adaption to climate
Why did the Norse fail to adapt?
Cultural views and Christianity, thought that the ways of the Inuit were unholy
Where does the name Anasazi mean?
The Ancient Ones
Where were the Anasazi located?
South west USA, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, Colorado
How long did the Anasazi live for?
600 years, 600-1200Ad
What was the population of the Anasazi?
30,000-100,000 depending on estimates
What tragedy in North Italy was caused by a failure to react to a problem?
The Vajont Dam disaster
How can crowd phycology lead to collapse?
Following of methods or actions
Why did Easter island loose all trees?
Deforested for creation of island statues
How can we track the climate of Easter Island?
Using lake varves from 3 volcanic craters
Name the 5 main methods for climate dating societal collapse?
Name examples of societal collapse?
Easter Island, Roman, Greek, Aztec, Maya, Anasazi, Egypt, Inca and Norse Greenland
Define societal collapse?
The fall of a complex human society?
How can lake varves be used to show climate change?
Sediment at the lake bed, light layer = summer and dark layer = winter, the width tell us time period
What are the 5 climate characteristics of the Anasazi habitat today?
Low plant growth rates
What do we know about past Anasazi climates?
Much wetter and milder than today
Which Anasazi tribes used higher elevations to survive?
Mongollon, Mes Verde
Which Anasazi tribes used lower elevations to survive?