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week 53 > Leffler 1.0 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Leffler 1.0 Deck (13)
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1

FSH

  • hormone
  • made and released by gonadotropes in the pituitary gland
  • stimulates germ cells in:
    • females-ovarian follicles
    • males-sertoli cells
  • Secreted in pulses
  • works synergystically w/LH to regulate reproduction
  • increase in peri/postmenopausal women
  • GnRH regulates release
  • Drugs:
    • Urofollitropin
      • purified from urine of PM women, w/LH
    • Follitropin alpha & beta
      • recombinant FSH, without LH

2

LH

  • hormone
  • made and released by gonadotropes in the pituitary gland
  • LH Surge triggers ovulation
  • secreted in pulses
  • works synergistically w/FSH to regulate reproduction
  • increased in peri/postmenopausal women
  • GnRH regulates release
  • LH levels are measured in "ovulation prediction kits" to help couples conceive
  • Drugs:
    • Lutropin
      • recombinant LH
      • administered: IM

3

Menotropins

  • aka Human Menopausal Gonadotropin; HMG
  • Gonadotropin mix of FSH & LH
  • Hormonally active medication to treat infertility
  • stimualtes ovaries to mature ovarian follicles
    • increase fertility
  • Are extracted from teh urin of PM women
  • can be administered to men to stimulate sperm production
  • Drugs:
    • Pergonal
    • Repronex
    • Administered IM daily

4

hCG

  • made from fertilized egg after conception
  • analog of LH
  • LH-like activity
    • some FSH
  • stimulates ovulation
  • helps uterus thicken
  • maintain growing fetus during pregnancy
  • Synthesized by placenta-->Post contraception hormone
  • Major side effects:
    • multiple births
  • Drugs:
    • Pregnyl
    • Admin: IM or SQ

5

Clomiphene

  • Antagonist
  • Inhibits/binds to estrogen (E2) receptors in hypothalamus
    • Increases LH & FSH
  • Major side effects:
    • multiple births
    • hot flashes
    • Visual disturbances
  • Drugs:
    • Clomid
    • Admin: PO

6

GnRH Agonists

  • Synthetic 10 aa peptide
    • act like natural GnRH
  • regulates LH & FSH
    • Admin:
      • pulse= Increase LH & FSH
      • continue= Decrease LH & FSH
  • Drugs:
    • Leuprolide
    • Gonadorelin (-relin)
    • admin: IM, SQ

7

GnRH Antagonists

  • Synthetic 10 aa peptide
  • Block GnRH receptors
    • Decrease LH & FSH
  • Major Side effects
    • Headache
    • injection site reaction
    • hot flashes
    • weight gain
    • fatigue
    • increased hepatic transaminases
  • Drugs: -relix
    • Cetrorelix
    • Ganirelix
    • Degarelix
    • Amind: SQ

8

Drugs for Endometriosis

  • GnRH Agonists
  • GnRH Antagonists
  • Danazol

9

Danazol

  • synthetic steroid w/weak androgen activity
  • Suppresses ovarian function by inhibiting LH & FSH surge
  • Therapy initiated during menstruation
    • continued for 3-6 months uninterupted
  • Major side effects
    • elevated liver enzymes
    • jaundice
    • masculinization
  • Drugs:
    • Danocrine
    • Admin: PO

10

How does lactation work?

  • Dopamine normally inhibits prolactin secretion

11

Hyperprolactinemia

  • High prolactin in blood
  • suppresses gonadotropin (LH, FSH) release
  • can cause:
    • galactorrhea
      • production and spontaneous flow of breast milk
    • amenorrhea
      • absence of menstruation
    • Gynecomastic
      • enlargement of breasts in men
    • infertility/impotence
  • increases the risk of osteoporosis

12

Drugs that affect lactation

  • Dopamine Antagonists
    • increase prolactin secretion
  • Dopamine agonists
    • decrease prolactin secretion

13

Dopamine Agonists

  • Bromocriptine
    • Stimulates D2 receptors
      • some D1 receptors
    • Side effects:
      • GI
      • headache
      • seizure
  • Cabergoline
    • more selective for D2
    • fewer side effects
    • longer half life than bromocriptine
  • All can cause:
    • nausea, headache, light head, orthostatic hypotension, fatigue, seizures (rare)