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Flashcards in Leg and Popliteal Fossa Deck (50):
1

how many muscles are there in the anterior compartment of the leg?

4

2

name the 4 muscles in the anterior compartment of the leg

tibialis anterior
extensor digitorum longus
extensor hallucis longus
peroneus tertius (fibularis tertius)

3

what innervates the anterior leg?

deep peroneal nerve (L4-L5)

4

what are the attachments of the tibialis anterior?

lateral tibia to base of metatarsal I

5

what is the general action of the anterior compartment of the leg?

dorsiflexion and inversion at ankle

6

what is the action of tibialis anterior?

dorsiflexion and inversion of foot

7

the tendons of which muscle can be palpated on the dorsum of the foot?

extensor digitorum longus

8

what are the attachments of the extensor digitorum longus?

lateral condyle of tibia and medial surface of fibular to each of the four lateral toes

9

what is the action of extensor digitorum longus?

extension of lateral 4 toes
dorsiflexion of foot

10

what are the attachments of extensor hallucis longus?

medial surface of fibular shaft - crosses anterior to ankle joint - base of distal phalanx of great toe

11

what are the actions of extensor hallucis longus?

extension of great toe
dorsiflexion of foot

12

what are the attachments of peroneus (fibularis) tertius?

medial surface of fibular
metatarsal V

13

what is the action of peroneus (fibularis) tertius?

eversion and dorsiflexion of foot

14

how many muscles are there in the lateral leg?

2

15

name the 2 muscles in the lateral leg?

peroneal longus
peroneal brevis
(fibularis!)

16

what is the action of the two lateral leg muscles?

eversion - realistically, prevention of excessive inversion of foot while running

17

describe the path of peroneal (fibularis) longus

origin: superior and lateral surface of fibula + lateral tibial condyle
tendon descends, passes into foot posterior to lateral malleolus
crosses under foot (like stirrup!) and attaches to medial bones - medial cuneiform and metatarsal I

18

what is the action of peroneal (fibularis) longus?

everision and plantar fexion
supports lateral and transverse arches of foot

19

describe the path of peroneal (fibularis) brevis

origin: inferior and lateral surface of fibular shaft
descends into foot posterior to lateral malleolus
attaches to tubercle on metatarsal V

20

what is the action of peroneal (fibularis) brevis?

eversion of foot

21

what innervates the lateral leg?

superficial peroneal nerve (L4-S1)

22

how many muscles are there in the posterior leg?

7

23

how many muscles are in the superficial layer of the posterior leg?

3

24

how many muscles are in the deep layer of the posterior leg?

4

25

name the 3 muscles in the superficial layer of the posterior leg?

gastrocnemius
plantaris
soleus

26

where do the superficial muscles of the posterior leg insert?

calcaneus - calcaneal tendon (Achille's heel)

27

what is the action of the posterior leg muscles?

plantar flexion and inversion

28

what innervates the posterior leg?

tibial nerve (terminal branch of sciatic)

29

where do the two heads of gastrocnemius originate?

lateral = lateral femoral condyle
medial = medial femoral condyle

30

what is the action of gastrocnemius?

plantar flexion at ankle
also crosses knee, so flexes there

31

name the 4 muscles innervated by the tibial nerve

the 3 superficial posterior leg muscles (gastrocnemius, plantaris, soleus) and the popliteus muscle

32

where does the plantaris originate?

lateral supracondylar line of femur

33

what is the action of plantaris?

plantar flexes at ankle, flexes at knee, although not vital for either of these movements

34

where does soleus originate?

soleal line of tibia and proximal fibular area

35

what is the action of soleus?

plantar flexion

36

name the 4 muscles of the deep layer of the posterior leg

popliteus
tibialis posterior
flexor digitorum longus
flexor hallucis longus

37

what is the action of popliteus?

"unlocks" knee by laterally rotating femur

38

what are the attachments of popliteus?

posterior tibia to lateral condyle of femur

39

what is the action of tibialis posterior?

inverts and plantar flexes foot
maintains medial arch of foot

40

what are the attachments of flexor digitorum longus?

medial surface of tibia to plantar surfaces of lateral 4 toes

41

what is the action of the flexor digitorum longus?

flexes lateral 4 toes

42

what are the attachments of flexor hallucis longus?

posterior surface of fibula to plantar surface of phalanx of great toe

43

what is the action of flexor hallucis longus?

flexes great toe

44

what forms the superiomedial border of the popliteal fossa?

semimembranous

45

what forms the superiolateral border of the popliteal fossa?

biceps femoris

46

what forms the inferomedial border of the popliteal fossa?

medial head of gastrocnemius

47

what forms the inferolateral border of the popliteal fossa?

plantaris and lateral head of gastrocnemius

48

what forms the floor of the popliteal fossa?

posterior knee joint capsule

49

what forms the roof of the popliteal fossa?

popliteal fascia and skin

50

what are the contents of the popliteal fossa?

(medial to lateral)
popliteal artery
popliteal vein
tibial nerve
common peroneal nerve