Flashcards in Thigh/Gluteal Region - Rob Deck (49):
What three bones make up the pelvis?
Ischium, ilium, pubis
What type of joint is the hip joint?
What is the function of the acetabular labrum?
To deepen the area of articulation in the acetabulum, thereby stabilising the joint
What factors stabilise the hip joint?
What are the three extra capsular hip ligaments?
One to each bone of the pelvis
What makes up the vascular supply to the hip joint?
Artery to head of femur
Medial and lateral circumflex arteries
In what direction is the hip more likely to dislocate? And why?
Posteriorly, due to the weaker posterior support (only the ischiofemoral ligament)
What signs indicate a posterior dislocation may have occurred?
The affected limb is shortened and internally rotated
Why is an intracapsular NoF fracture more severe?
Increased risk of AVN due to interrupted blood supply
How may the gluteal muscles be divided?
Deep group vs. superficial group
What are the deep muscles of the gluteal region?
Gemellus superior and inferior
What are the superficial muscles of the gluteal region?
Gluteus minimus, medius and maximus
What nerve innervates the obturator internus and gemellus superior?
Nerve to obturator internus
What nerve innervates the gemellus inferior and quadratus femoris?
Nerve to quadratus femoris
What innervates piriformis?
Branches from L5, S1 and S2 (nerve to piriformis in sheffield)
What are the functions of the 4 deep muscles apart from quadratus femoris?
Abduction of flexed femur
What is the function of quadratus femoris?
Lateral rotation only
What innervates gluteus medius minimus?
Superior gluteal nerve
What innervates gluteus maximus
Inferior gluteal nerve
What is the function of the tensor fascia lata?
Stabilises the knee joint in extension
What is a safe location for IM injection over the gluteal region?
Upper lateral quadrant, to avoid damage to the sciatic nerve, or other nerves and vessels in the region
What are the three compartments of the thigh?
Anterior, medial and posterior
What is the general function of the anterior compartment?
Flexion at the hip joint and extension at the knee joint
What are the muscles of the anterior compartment?
Vastus lateralis, medialis and intermedius
What innervates the muscles of the anterior compartment?
What forms quadriceps femoris?
The three vastus muscles and rectus femoris
What tests reflex activity at L3 and L4?
Tapping the patellar ligament as quad femoris is innervated mainly by L4/L4
How many muscles are in the medial compartment of the thigh?
What are the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?
Adductor brevis, longus and magnus
What innervates gracilis?
What innervates the adductor muscles?
What innervates pectineus?
What is the general function of the muscles in the medial compartment?
also some rotation and flexion
What is the function of obturator externus?
Lateral rotation of the thigh
What is the function of the adductor muscles?
Longus and magnus also medially rotate the thigh
What is the function of pectinius?
Flexion of thigh at hip joint
What is the function of gracilis?
Adducts thigh at hip
Flexes leg at knee joint
What is the general function of the posterior compartment?
To flex at the knee joint and extend the thigh at the hip joint
How many muscles are in the posterior compartment?
What are the muscles of the posterior compartment?
What innervates the posterior compartment?
In addition to flexion of the knee and extension of the thigh what is the function of biceps femoris?
Lateral rotation of the leg at the knee joint
In addition to flexion of the knee and extension of the thigh what is the function of semimembranosus and semitendinosus?
Medial rotation of the leg at the knee joint
What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?
Superior = inguinal ligaments
Medial = adductor longus
Lateral = sartorius
What are the contents of the femoral triangle?
NAVY (Lateral to Medial)
What is the apex of the femoral triangle continuous with?
What is the clinical significance of the femoral triangle?
Access to femoral artery e.g ABGs or catheterisation
What are the contents of the femoral canal?
Femoral artery, vein and associated lymphatics