Thigh/Gluteal Region - Rob Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thigh/Gluteal Region - Rob Deck (49):
1

What three bones make up the pelvis?

Ischium, ilium, pubis

2

What type of joint is the hip joint?

Synovial, ball-and-socket

3

What is the function of the acetabular labrum?

To deepen the area of articulation in the acetabulum, thereby stabilising the joint

4

What factors stabilise the hip joint?

Acetabular labrum
Intracapsular ligaments
Extracapsular ligaments
Muscule attachments

5

What are the three extra capsular hip ligaments?

Iliofemoral
Pubofemoral
Ischiofemoral

One to each bone of the pelvis

6

What makes up the vascular supply to the hip joint?

Artery to head of femur
Medial and lateral circumflex arteries

7

In what direction is the hip more likely to dislocate? And why?

Posteriorly, due to the weaker posterior support (only the ischiofemoral ligament)

8

What signs indicate a posterior dislocation may have occurred?

The affected limb is shortened and internally rotated

9

Why is an intracapsular NoF fracture more severe?

Increased risk of AVN due to interrupted blood supply

10

How may the gluteal muscles be divided?

Deep group vs. superficial group

11

What are the deep muscles of the gluteal region?

Piriformis
Obturator internus
Gemellus superior and inferior
Quadratus femoris

12

What are the superficial muscles of the gluteal region?

Gluteus minimus, medius and maximus

13

What nerve innervates the obturator internus and gemellus superior?

Nerve to obturator internus

14

What nerve innervates the gemellus inferior and quadratus femoris?

Nerve to quadratus femoris

15

What innervates piriformis?

Branches from L5, S1 and S2 (nerve to piriformis in sheffield)

16

What are the functions of the 4 deep muscles apart from quadratus femoris?

Abduction of flexed femur
Lateral rotation

17

What is the function of quadratus femoris?

Lateral rotation only

18

What innervates gluteus medius minimus?

Superior gluteal nerve

19

What innervates gluteus maximus

Inferior gluteal nerve

20

What is the function of the tensor fascia lata?

Stabilises the knee joint in extension

21

What is a safe location for IM injection over the gluteal region?

Upper lateral quadrant, to avoid damage to the sciatic nerve, or other nerves and vessels in the region

22

What are the three compartments of the thigh?

Anterior, medial and posterior

23

What is the general function of the anterior compartment?

Flexion at the hip joint and extension at the knee joint

24

What are the muscles of the anterior compartment?

Psoas major
Iliacus
Vastus lateralis, medialis and intermedius
Rectus femoris
Sartorius

25

What innervates the muscles of the anterior compartment?

Femoral nerve

26

What forms quadriceps femoris?

The three vastus muscles and rectus femoris

27

What tests reflex activity at L3 and L4?

Tapping the patellar ligament as quad femoris is innervated mainly by L4/L4

28

How many muscles are in the medial compartment of the thigh?

6

29

What are the muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh?

Gracilis
Pectinius
Obturator externus
Adductor brevis, longus and magnus

30

What innervates gracilis?

Obturator nerve

31

What innervates the adductor muscles?

Obturator nerve

32

What innervates pectineus?

Femoral nerve

33

What is the general function of the muscles in the medial compartment?

Adduction
also some rotation and flexion

34

What is the function of obturator externus?

Lateral rotation of the thigh

35

What is the function of the adductor muscles?

Adduction
Longus and magnus also medially rotate the thigh

36

What is the function of pectinius?

Adduction
Flexion of thigh at hip joint

37

What is the function of gracilis?

Adducts thigh at hip
Flexes leg at knee joint

38

What is the general function of the posterior compartment?

To flex at the knee joint and extend the thigh at the hip joint

39

How many muscles are in the posterior compartment?

3

40

What are the muscles of the posterior compartment?

Biceps femoris
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus

41

What innervates the posterior compartment?

Sciatic nerve

42

In addition to flexion of the knee and extension of the thigh what is the function of biceps femoris?

Lateral rotation of the leg at the knee joint

43

In addition to flexion of the knee and extension of the thigh what is the function of semimembranosus and semitendinosus?

Medial rotation of the leg at the knee joint

44

What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?

Superior = inguinal ligaments
Medial = adductor longus
Lateral = sartorius

45

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

NAVY (Lateral to Medial)
Femoral Nerve
Femoral Artery
Femoral Vein

46

What is the apex of the femoral triangle continuous with?

Adductor canal

47

What is the clinical significance of the femoral triangle?

Femoral hernias
Femoral pulse
Access to femoral artery e.g ABGs or catheterisation

48

What are the contents of the femoral canal?

Femoral artery, vein and associated lymphatics

49

What is the clinical significance of the femoral canal?

Hernias