Leg, Foot, & Ankle Flashcards Preview

Orthopedic Diagnosis > Leg, Foot, & Ankle > Flashcards

Flashcards in Leg, Foot, & Ankle Deck (69):
1

number of bones in the foot and ankle

28, including two sesamoid

2

sesamoiditis

inflammation of the sesamoid bones

3

number of articulations in the foot and ankle

55, including 30 synovial joints

4

Rear foot

aka hindfoot
made up of talus and calcaneus

5

midfoot

made up of the navicular, cuboid, and three cuneiforms

6

forefoot

made up of the 14 bones of the toes, 5 metatarsals, and medial and lateral sesamoids

7

Distal tibiofibular joint

classified as a syndesmosis
common area of diastasis (separating ankle bones due to injury)

8

talocrural joint

ankle joint
classified as a synovial hinge or modified sellar joint
formed between talus and distal tibia

9

Primary motions at the talocrural joint

dosiflexion and plantarflexion

10

close packed position of the talocrural joint

weight bearing dorsiflexion

11

open packed position of the talocrural joint

midway between supination and pronation

12

Subtalar joint

aka talocalcaneal joint
synovial, bicondylar compound joint composed of two separate, modified ovid surfaces with their own joint cavities

13

subtalar joint supination and pronation are measured by

the amount of calcaneal (hindfoot) inversion and eversion

14

close packed position of the subtalar joint

full inversion

15

open packed position of the subtalar joint

inversion/plantar flexion

16

superficial talocalcaneal joint ligaments

posterior talocalcaneal and lateral calcaneal

17

deep talocalcaneal joint ligaments

interosseus, cervical, and axial ligaments

18

midtarsal joint complex

made up of the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid articulations

19

Talonavicular joint

synovial, compound, modified ovoid joint
formed by talus, navicular, calcaneus, and spring ligament

20

spring ligament

aka plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
connects the navicular bone to the sustentaculum tali on the calcaneus

21

calcaneocubiod joint

simple, synovial, modified sellar joint

22

ligaments of the calcaneocuboid joint

long plantar ligament and a portion of the bifurcate ligament

23

cuneonavicular joint

compound, synovial, modified ovoid joint

24

Intercuneiform and cuneocubiod joints

compound, synovial, modified ovoid joints

25

Cubometatarsal joint

when considered alone, a compound, modified ovoid, synovial joint

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Cubonavicular joint

syndesmosis/plane surfaced joint

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Intermetatarsal joints

the first is classified as SIMPLE synovial modified ovoid and the second third and fourth are classifies as COMPOUND

28

MTP Joints

simple synovial modified ovoid

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IP Joints

simple synovial modified sellar joints

30

Claw toe

hyperextension of the MTP joints and flexion of the PIP and DIP joints

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hammer toe

hyperextension of the MTP and DIP joints and flexion of the PIP

32

Mallet toe

hyperflexion of the DIP joint with callus formation of the dorsum of the affected joint

33

hallux valgus

lateral deviation of the proximal phalanx of the first toe with pain on the medial side of the 1st MTP which can result in external rotation of the first ray

34

Bunion at the fifth MTP

tailors bunion or a bunionette

35

Plantar fascia runs

from os calcis and inserts through a complex network to the plantar forefoot

36

pes cavus

abnormally high arch

37

pes planus

absent arch

38

Anterior compartment of extrinsic muscles of the foot

dorsiflexors
tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum, extensor hallucis longus, and peroneus tertius

39

tibialis anterior

strongest dorsiflexor

40

loss of tibialis anterior strength can lead to

steppage or drop-foot gait

41

Posterior superficial compartment of extrinsic muscles of the foot

located posterior to the interosseous membrane, contains plantarflexors
gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris

42

posterior deep compartment of extrinsic muscles of the foot

foot flexors
posterior tibialis, fleexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus

43

Lateral compartment compartment of extrinsic muscles of the foot

peroneus longus and brevis

44

intrinsic muscles of the foot

divided into four layers

45

first layer of the intrinsic muscles of the foot

abductor hallucis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum brevis

46

second layer of the intrinsic muscles of the foot

flexor digitorum accessorius (quadratus plantae), the lumbricals

47

third layer of the intrinsic muscles of the foot

flexor hallucis brevis, flexor digiti minimi, adductor hallucis

48

fourth layer of the intrinsic muscles of the foot

dorsal and plantar interossei

49

Dorsal intrinsic muscles of the foot

extensor hallucis brevis and extensor digitorum brevis

50

Arches of the foot

medial longitudinal, lateral longitudinal, and transverse

51

medial longitudinal arch

made up of the first three digits, their metatarsals, the cuneiforms, navicular and talus

52

lateral longitudinal arch

made up of digits 4 and 5, their metatarsals, the cubiod, and calcaneus

53

the transverse arch

formed by the five metatarsal bones

54

dropped transverse arch leads to

excessive pressure between the metatarsal heads
can lead to morton's neuroma

55

the saphenous nerve

largest cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve
supplies the medial aspect of the foot

56

the sciatic nerve

provides sensory and motor innervation to the foot and leg

57

sciatic nerve divides into

the common peroneal and tibial nerves

58

tarsal tunnel syndrome

neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve due to tunnel compression or stretching

59

MOI in tarsal tunnel

repetitive hyperflexion or hyperextension motion resulting in tenosynovitis with constriction of the posterior tibial nerve

60

motion in the frontal plane

inversion and eversion

61

motion in the sagittal plane

dorsiflexion and plantarflexion

62

motion in the horizontal plane

adduction and abduction

63

triplane motion

movement about an obliquely oriented axis through all three body planes
pronation and supination are considered triplanar

64

where does triplanar motion occur

the talocrural, subtalar, and midtarsal joints, and at the first and fifth rays

65

supination is a combined motion of

adduction, plantarflexion, and inversion

66

Normal alignment of the first MTP lies between

5 degrees varus and 15 degrees valgus

67

Gout

purine metabolism disorder leads to deposition of sodium monourate crystals into joint capsules and subq tissues

68

prevalence of gout

20:1 in males, ages 40-60

69

symptoms can be referred to the foot and ankle from

L4-S2 nerve roots