Less toe deformity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Less toe deformity Deck (55):
1

What is a claw deformity characterised by?

  • MTPJ HYPEREXTENSION ---> PIPJ AND DIPJ FLEXION similar to intrinsic deformity of the hand
  • combination of hammer and mallet toe

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2

What is claw's toes epidemiology?

  • Bilateral
  • Typically involves multiple toes

3

What is the pathophysiology of claw toes?

  • PRIMARY MCPJ HYPEREXTENSION
  • --> UNOPPOSED FLEXION PIPJ and DIPJ BY FDL
  • MTP PLANTAR PLATE becomes insufficient
  • Base of PROX PHALANX TRANSLATES DORSALLY
  • INTEROSSEI AND LUMBRICALS move DORSALLY
  • shift rotation dorsally

4

What is the result of the pathophysiology?

  • Shifts flexion moment to WRONG SIDE OF CENTRE OF ROATION -> FLEXION

5

Describe the Aetiology of claw toe?

  • SYNOVITIS- most common
  • TRAUMA
  • DELAYED COMPARTMENT SYNDROME- DEEP POST COMPARTMENT

6

What other conditions are associated with Claw toes?

  • Pes CAVUS
  • NEUROMUSCULAR disease- effects intrinsics
  • INFLAMMATORY ARTHROPATHIES- leads to soft tissue attenuation and MTPJ instability

7

What do patients with Claw toe present with?

Symptoms

  • METATARSALGIA
  • PAIN AT LEVEL OF UNSTABLE MTCP

Signs

  • Claw like deformity of toe
  • Depressed metatarsal head with callus formation adn tenderness
  • Flexed IPJ with callosities and tenderness

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8

Describe non operative tx of claw toes?

Non operative

  • Taping / Shoe modificaiton
    • first line of treatment
    • adequate plantar padding using MT and or crest pads or orthotics to off load plantarly sublused MT heads
    • sling to hold proximal phalanx parallel to the ground

9

Describe operative tx of claw toes?

  • Extensor Digitorium brevis tenotomy, Extensor Digitorium Longus lengthening, FDL flexor to extensor transfer ( girdelstone)
    • for painful , flexible deformities without contractures
    • ulcerations caused by shoe wear
  • Girdlestone, MTP capsulectomy, and proximal phalanx and head resection = fixed contracture
  • Girdelstone and MT shortening osteotomy = Weils
    • clawing of all 4 lesser toes
    • oblique shortening osteotomy
    • translated MT heads PROXIMAL & PLANTAR

 

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10

What are the complications of surgical correction of claw toes?

  • Floating toe
    • most common complx of Weils osteotomy
    • caused by intrinsics migrating dorsally to the joint and acting as MTP extensors
    • avoid by osteotomy parallel to plantar surface if foot or a wafer of bone resected to ensure that joint is not depressed as the mT is shortened- see pic
  • ​Reoccurance
    • Persistent plantar plate dysfunction

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11

decribe the anatomy of extensor digitorium brevis and extensor hallucis?

Extensor digitorium brevus

  • orgin- lateral portion of calcaneus
  • inserts- Base prox phlanax 2-4 toes

Extensor hallucis brevis

  • origin- dorsal lateral side of calcaneus
  • inserts- base of prox phalanx great toe

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12

What is this?

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  • Hammer toe
  • Flexion at PIPJ and extension at DIPJ

13

What is the epidemiology of hammer toes?

  • Most common deformity of lesser toes
  • more common in older women
  • second toe most commonly affected

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14

What is the pathanatomy of hammer toe?

  • Overpull of Extensor Digitorium Longus
  • Imbalance of Intrinsics

15

Describe any associated conditions of hammer toes?

  • Painful corns at PIPJ

16

What are the signs and symptoms of hammer toes?

Symptoms

  • Pain on dorsal surface of shoe wear
  • deformity

Signs

  • Flexion deformity of PIPJ of lesser toes with extension of DIPJ
  • PUSH UP TEST- flexible deformity is correctable with dorsal directed pressure on plantar aspect of involved metatarsals

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17

what is the tx for hammer toe deformities?

Non operative

  • Shoe with high toe box, foam or silicone gel sleeves
    • pain or corns on dorsal PIP

Operative

  • Flexor tendon (FDL) to extensor Tendon transfer
    • Flexible deformity that failed non op
  • Resection arthroplasty +/- tenotomy and tendon transfers
    • Rigid deformity that has failed non op mx
  • Girdlestone procedure with flexor to extensor transfer
    • MTP involvement
    • Similar to claw toe tx
  • Arthrodesis
    • ​rigid deformity
    • high non union rate

 

18

Describe resection arthroplasty and tenotomy & tendon transfer?

  • Resection of head and neck or proximal phalanx to create a fibrous joint
    • ​+/- FDL to EDL transfer
    • hold in place with K wires 2-3 wks
    • post op additional 3 weeks w taping of PIPj in extension

19

Describe the girdlestone procedure for hammer toes?

  • (flexor to extensor transfer)
  • Extensor tendon lengthening Z plasty
  • Preform MTP capsule release
  • +/- Metatarsal shortening with oblique osteotomy
  • FDL to EDL transfer

20

What is this?

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  • Mallet deformity
  • Hyperflexion of the DIPJ
  • normal PIPJ and MTPJ

 

Deformity may be fixed or flexible

 

21

What is the pathoanatomy of mallet toe?

  • Contracture/ of FDL
  • >70% of patient have a longer 

22

What is the congential  mallet toe associated with?

  • Flexion and lateral deviation of DIPJ

23

What is seen on examination of a mallet toe?

  • Callosities on toe
    • dorsum of DIPJ
    • Tip of toe
    • Pain results from impacting the ground with gait

24

What is the TX of mallet toes?

Non operative

  • Shoes with hogh toe boxes, silicone/foam toe sleeves
    • first line 

Operative

  • Percutaneous FDL tenotomy
    • flexible deformity that have failed non op
  • Middle phalangeal distal condylectomy (excision arthroplasty of DIP)
    • Rigid deformities that have failed non op mx
    • repair attenuated extensor tendons
    • K wire placement used to hold affected digit in extension

25

What is the epidemiology of synovitis of 2nd MTP?

  • Most frequent monoarticular synovitis of the MTPJ
  • risk factors
    • Elongated 2nd MT relative to 1st MT
      • Morton foot
    • Hallux valgus deformity

26

Describe the pathoanatomy?

  • Synovitis -> capsuloligamentous apparatus of MTP joint become stretched
    • stretch-> instability
    • instability -> deformity
  • Attenuation of plantar plate
    • extension of MTPJ
    • Sagittal plane deformity
    • assoc cross over toe deformity
  • ​MTP instability -> dorsal dislocation of MTPJ
    • predipose to hammer toe

27

What are the signs and symptoms of 2nd MT synovitis?

Symptoms

  • Pain
  • Warmth
  • fullness of joint

Signs

  • Pain and tenderness
    • pain in 2nd webspace
    • tendereness maybe worse plantarly over PLANTAR PLATE or over DORSAL CAPSULE
    • Pressure on interdgitial nerve
  • GLobal swelling of MTP
  • Motion- decreased plantar flexion
  • deformity is passively correctable in predislocation stage
  • distruption to collat log and planatar plate-> cross over toe deformity

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28

What investigations are helpful in dx of 2nd MT synovitis?

xrays

  • weight bearing ap and lateral of foot
  • widening /medial- lateral joint space imbalance of 2nf MTPJ
    • may appear like joint space narrowing or overlapping of the proximal phalanx on distal metatarsal head
    • varus/valgus deformity of toe

MRI

  • If dx is unclear
  • quantify the extent of plantar plate or ligamentous disruption

29

DDX of pain 2nd webspace?

  • Morton's neuroma
  • 2nd MT synovitis
  • Need to distinguish between synovitis and neuroma as if you inject steriod into synovotis can weakend capsuloligamentous structures at MTPJ-> progressive deformity

30

What is the tx of 2nd MT synovitis?

Non operative

  • Activity modifications, NSAIDS, external support of MTPJ
    • first line tx
    • external support crossover taping/ budin -type toe splint
    • non op tx should last 10-12 weeks
    • avoid shoes that aggrevate symptoms

Operative

  • Synovectomy
    • no deformity
    • failure of non op tx
  • Distal oblique shortening MT Osteotomy- Weils procedure
    • ​fixed flexion deformity 2nd MT
    • preserves joint
    • rebalances MT cascade
    • relaxes planar plate and rebalances alignment
  • Girdlestone- taylor: FDL to EDL tendon transfer or MTP capsular release with extensor tendon lengthening
    • Fixed deformity and NO long 2nd MT
    • sagittal deformity

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31

What are the complications of 2nd MT synovitis surgery?

  • Vascular compromise
    • if correcting a dislocated the soft tisse can contract including vasculature
    • stretching can compromise too
    • may need to reverse to save toe

32

What are the features of MTP dislocation?

  • Multiplanar instability of MTPJ
    • often seen with cross over toe
    • dosral medial subluxation

33

What are the pathoantomic stages of MTP dislocations?

  • Plantar plate disrupted
    • trauma/inflammatory 
  • Lateral collateral ligaments fail
    • medial deviation of 2nd toe
    • plantar plate with flexor attachment moves medially
    • medial displacement of prox phalanx cf mt
  • Medial structures become contracted
    • lumbricals, interosseous tendons, MCL & medial capsule become tight 
  • Plantar plate fails

34

Describe the anatomy of the plantar plate?

  • Broad thick ligamentous structure spans plantar aspect of MTPJ
  • origin MT head
  • inserts plantar base proximal phalanx

function

  • resists tensile loads in sagittal plane
  • cushioned joint and supports weight bearing

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35

What are the signs and symptom of dislocated MTPJ?

Symptoms

  • walking on marbles
  • Pain

Signs

  • Callus under Mt head
  • Dorsimedial deviation of toe
  • Hammer toe- flexion PIPj ,extensionDIPJ

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36

What investigations are useful for MT dislocation?

Xray

  • Ap and lateral foot standing
    • dislocation of proximal phalanx
    • Hyperextension and dorsal dislocation of proximal phalanx

MRI

  • Rule out other pathology

37

What are the tx for MT dislocation?

Non Operative

  • Taping, Shoe modification, Metatarsal pads, Budin splint, NSAIDS
    • first line
    • Won't correct deformity

surgery

  • Distal oblique shortening MT osteotomy- Weils
    • sig pain and fixed deformity
    • achieves longitudinal compression thru shortening and allows joit reduction
    • ostetomy alomost parallel to plantar aspect of foot
    • Dorsal & medial capsular release of MT
    • fixation screw perpendicular to osteotomy
  • Plantar plate repair with MT osteotomy
    • suture thru planar plate and proximal phalanx
  • Flexor to extensor tendon transfer
    • Split FDL over Proximal phalanx to stabilise joint
  •  

38

what are the complications of MT surgery?

  • Cock up deformity of toe
    • inability to flex MTPJ-> 2nd digit dorsiflexion deformity
  • Toe vascular compromise
    • strecthing of tissue can compromise toe
    • procedure may need to be reversed

39

What is this?

  • Bunionette deformity
  • characterised by lateral prominence of 5th Mt head
  • aka as Tailors bunion

40

What is a bunionette caused by?

  • A widened 4-5 intermetarsal angle
  • abnormal transverse metatarsal angle

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41

What is a bunionette associated with?

  • Varus MTPJ
  • Pes planus

42

Describe the classification of bunionette's and tx plan?

  • Coughlin
  • Type 1 Enlarged 5th MT head or lateral exostosis
    • tx Condylectomy (excision of lateral bony eminence)
  • Type 2 Congential bow of 5th MT, normal 4-5 IMA
    • chevron (distal) osteotomy +/- lateral eminence resection
  • Type 3- Increased 4-5 IMA( >6.2omost common-see pic
    • Oblique mid- diaphyseal metatarsal osoteotomy
    • shave planatar aspect of 5th MT head if plantar deformity calosity present- never excise 5Th MT head

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43

Describe the signs and symptoms of bunionette?

symptoms

  • Painful lateral callus

Signs

  • Plantar keratosis
  • pain with shoe wear

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44

What investigaitons are helpful in dx of bunionette?

Xrays

  • Standing WB ap , lateral and oblique
    • increased 4-5 Intermetarsal angle normal 6.5-8o
    • Increase width of MT head (normal <13mm)
    • Increase lateral deviation angle (normal 0-7o)

45

What is the tx of bunionette?

Non operative

  • Shoe wear modification, keratosis padding and shaving
    • initial mode of tx
    • 75-90% success rate

Operative

  • Exostectomy vs Metatarsal osteotomy ( proximal, diaphyseal,distal)
    • poor response to non surgical mx

46

What are the complications of bunionette surgery?

  • Reoccurrance
    • especially with condylectomy alone
  • Transfer metatarsalgia
    • with isolated MT head resection
  • Claw toe

47

What is this?

Q image thumb

  • Freiberg disease
  • aka Freiberg's infraction - infraction and fracture
  • AVN of the 2nd MT head

48

Describe the epidemiology of Freiberg's disease?

  • Most common in adolescents 13-18 yrs
  • Most common in female adolescent atheletes

Risk Factors

  • More common in patients with long 2nd MT

49

What is the pathophysiology of Freiberg's disease?

  • Thought to be related to a disruption in the blood supply due to microtrauma and stress overloading
  • Leads to eventual collapse of 2nd MT head

50

What is the classification system of freiberg's disease?

  • SMILLIE
  • Stage 1= subchondral fracture visible only on MRI
  • Stage 2= dorsal collapse of articular surface on xray
  • Stage 3= Collapse of dorsal MT head with plantar articular portion intact
  • Stage 4= Collapse of entire MT head, joint space narrowing
  • Stage 5= severe arthritic changes and joint space obliteration

51

What are the signs and symptoms of freiberg's disease?

Symptoms

  • Forefoot pain localised to head of 2nd MT
  • worse with weight bearing

Signs

  • Swelling and limitation of motion in 2nd MTPJ

52

What investigations are helpful in dx of freigberg's disease?

  • standing ap , lateral and oblique foot xrays
    • Sclerosis
    • flattening of involved MT head
    • Joint destruction in late disease
    • defect is usually located in upper half of the articular surface of the MT head
  • MRI
    • can show patchy oedema

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53

What are the tx of freigberg's disease?

Non operative

  • Activity limiation, NSAIDS, immobilisation
    • early disease
    • BK walking cast 3-4 weeks
    • Stiff sole shoe with MT bars /pads-post pop

Operative

  • Metatarsophalangeal arthrotomy with removal of loose bodies
    •  v rare indication
    • can be combined with drilling MT head, subchondral Bone graft, interpositional graft using EDL
  • Dorsiflexion closing and shortening osteotomy

    • dorsal disease involvement of bone and cartilage
       
    • Shortening reduced stress and load on MT head
    • bring less effective plantar cartilage into contact with proximal phalanx
  • DuVries arthroplasty( partial MT head resection)
    • severe 4-5 stage
    • plantar cartilage not sufficient to reconstruct joint 

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54

Describe the surgical approach to tx Freigberg's disease?

Supine on table

Incision

  • make 2-3 cm dorsolateral incision parallel to correspinding extensor tendon
  • if 2 adjacent joints need to be exposed - make incision between them

Superifical dissection

  • Incise deep facia in line with incision
  • retract extensor tendon to reveal MTPJ

Deep Dissection

  • Perform Transverse or longitudinal arthrotomy
  • Retract the joint capsule to expose the MTPJ

 

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55

What are the complciations of Freigberg's disease?

  • Degenerative joint disease of 2nd MT joint in adulthood