ankle and foot anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ankle and foot anatomy Deck (38):

Name the lateral ligaments of the ankle?

Which is the strongest and weakest?

  • Anterior talofibular ligament
  • Calcaneofibular ligament
  • Posterior talofibular ligament
  • Syndesmosis includes- AITFL, PITFL, TTFL, IOL, ITL


  • Ant talofibular -weakest
  • Post talofibular lig - strongest



Name the medial ankle ligaments?

  • Deltoid
  • Calcaneonavicular ligament - Spring ligament


What is the main stabiliser in stance phase of gait ?

Deltoid ligament


What is the deltoid ligament made up of?

  • Deep and superficial ligaments
  • Superficial
    • crosses both ankle and subtalar joints
    • tibiocalcaneal ( sustenaculum portion ) is strongest portion in superificial layer and resists calcaneal eversion
  • Deep 
    • only crosses ankle joint
    • primary stabiliser of medial ankle
    • prevent lateral displacement & external rotation of talus
    • originates inferior and posterior aspects of medial malleolus and inserts medial adn posterolateral aspects of talus and inserts medial posteromedial aspects of talus


How do you test the deltoid ligament?

  • eversion test
  • with ankle in neutral , evaluates superificial layer
  • external rotation stres test evaluates syndesmosis and deep layer


What investigations is helpful to dx deltoid lig injury?


  • Mortice view with medial clear space widening
  • Gravity stress view


  • rutured Deltoid ligament

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What is the function of the spring ligament?

  • Static stabiliser of the medial longitudinal arch and head of talus


Describe the anatomy of the spring ligament- Calcaneonavicular?

  • Attaches from sustentaculum tali to inferior aspect of navicular

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What is seen clliniclly in a pt with spring lig injury?

  • Flattening of medial longitudinal arch
  • suspect injury in associated posterior tibial tendon pathology


What investigations are useful in dx of spring ligament injury?


  • can dx tear
  • green on pic normal , red is torn
  • spring ligament ca be torn is association of tibialis posterior insufficiency or an acute tear with intact TP

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What is the function of the syndesmosis? 

what is the syndemosis made up of?

  • intregrity of ankle mortice


  • Anterior- inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL)
  • posterior- inferior tibiofibular ligmament  (PITFL)
  • Transverse tibiofibular ligament (TTFL)
  • Interosseous ligament (IOL)

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What is the imaging useful for DX a syndemotic injury?


  • Ap and mortise ankle radiographs
    • evaluate the clear space adn tibiofibular overlap
    • tibiofibular clear space should be <5mm
    • Tibiofibular overlap for AP view >10mm
  • WB mortise view most accurate to dx 

CT scan

  • Most accurate assessment


What bones comprise the hindfoot ?

Talus Calcaneus Cuboid


What joints make up the hindfoot ?

Subtalar Calcaneocuboid Talobavicular


What is he function of the hindfoot ? Which one is greater ?

  • Inversion
  • Eversion
  • Inversion usually greater.
  • Limited eversion contributes further to mild cavovarua foot deformity


Where for the midfoot begin articulation?

  • Between navicular and cuneiforms
  • along with the cuboid and 4th and 5th metatarsals.
  • Included the tarsometarsal joints


What is the function of the midfoot ?

  • In adduction and abduction


What is the name for the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints?

  • Chopard or midtarsal or transverse tarsal


What is important about chopart joint? Explain how?

  • Provides stability of hindfoot and midfoot to produce a rigid lever at heel rise
  • On heel strike- transverse tarsal joints are parallel and supple- adapt uneven ground
  • During toe off- joints become divergent and lock- stiff to foot for forward propulsion


What is the collective name for the Tmt joint?



How many columns has the forefoot ? Name them?


  • Medial
  • Middle
  • lateral


What is in the medial column?

  • 1st metatarsal
  • medial cuneiform
  •  navicular


What is in the middle column?

  • 2/3 rd metatarsals
  • Middle cuneiform
  • Lateral cuneiform


What is in the lateral column ?

  • 4:5 th metatarsal
  • Cuboid


Which Column is the most flexible?

  • The lateral column
  • Aids flexibility on uneven grounds


Name the 2 arches in the foot?

  • Longitudinal
  • Transverse


Name the primary stabiliser of the longitudinal arch? 

The interosseous ligament


Name the sexondary stabiliser of the longitudinal arch?

  • The plantar fascia


Where is the location of the lis franc ligament ?

  • Between the medial cuneiform and base of 2nd metatarsal


What does the forefoot consist of?

Includes all structures distal to Tmt joints


Which MT s longer ? Why is this important

  1. 2nd
  2. Risk of stress fracture greatest


Which MT is the shortest ? What is the clinical significance ?

  • The 1st- shorter and wider
  • Bears 50% weight during gait


Name what balances the lesser toes?

  • Extrinsic ligaments - extensor digitorum longus , flexor digitorum longus
  • Instrinics-interossei, lumbricals- allow Flexion at mcpj and extension at pipj
  • Passive restraints- joint capsule, plantar plate, extensor hood, collateral ligaments


Describe the position of the intrinsics tendons

  • The tendons pass plantar- Flexion force to the mtp joint axis proximally and pass dorsal to the axis distally ( provide extension to pipj)


What happens when this axis migrates plantar ?

  • Post weils osteotomy ( oblique shortening) of the mt heads leads to cock up toe- tendons are now relatively dorsal to the mtp axis of rotation


What happens when unstrung a are lost?

In hereditary and sensory neuropathy or diabetic neuropathy -> claw toes


Can you decribe the function of the ankle ligaments?

  •  The calcaneofibular ligament becomes most taut with the ankle dorsiflexed and inverted.
  •  The anterior talofibular ligament is most tensioned with the ankle plantarflexed and inverted.
  • The anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments contribute stability to the tibiofibular articulation and syndesmosis.
  • The deltoid ligament is the primary stabilizer medially and is stressed with ankle eversion testing.