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0

What is the surface area of skin?

3000 square inches

1

What is the thickness of skin?

0.5 to 3 mm

2

How many cells are contained in one square inch of skin?

3 million cells

3

What are the functions of skin?

Protect against infection, desiccation, harmful light rays
Maintain body temp
Receive stimuli from environment
Stores chemical compounds
Excretes waste products
Synthesizes vitamin D

4

Name the thinner outer layer of the skin.

Epidermis

5

How many layers comprise the epidermis?

4 (palms of hands and feet have 5)

6

Which layers of the epidermis regenerate the cells of the epidermis?

Stratum Basale
Stratum spinosum

7

What is the waterproofing protein that forms in cells as they move towards the surface of the epidermis?

Keratin

8

What is the outermost layer of the epidermis?

Stratum corneum

9

How often is an epidermal cell shed and regenerated?

28-30 days

10

How many rows of cells are in the outermost layer of the epidermis?

25 to 30 rows

11

What are epidermal cells called?

keratinocytes

12

What other cells are found in the epidermis and are protective?

melanocytes and langerhans cells

13

What layer of skin is deep to the epidermis?

Dermis

14

What does the dermis contain?

blood vessels, nerves, glands, hair follicles

15

What are the three appendages of the skin?

hair
glands
nails

16

What is the soft hair that covers the body?

Vellus

17

What do appendages develop from?

Embryonic epidermis

18

What is the coarse hair that develops at puberty?

terminal also includes hair on scalp and eyebrows

19

What are the three parts of a hair?

shaft
root
follicle

20

What layer of the skin creates a hair follicle?

The epidermis

21

What structures are associated with hair follicles?

Sebaceous glands
arrector pili muscles

22

What glands are associated with the skin?

Sebaceous glands
Sweat glands

23

What are the two types of sweat glands?

apocrine - develop at puberty, located in the axilla, pubic region, and breast areolae.
eccrine - distributed throughout the skin

24

What is the function of a sebaceous gland?

secrete sebum (oil) which protects the hair and skin from becoming too dry

25

What are the parts of the nail?

free edge
nail body
nail root
lunula (white area at proximal end)
cuticle (epidermis around the nail)
nail bed (epidermis under the nail)

26

What three things determine skin color?

Melanin
Carotene
Blood in the Capillaries

27

What is a freckle?

Melanin that forms in patches

28

How does UV radiation affect melanocytes?

It increases enzymatic activity which produces more melanin. Eventually, epidermal cells take up the melanin by phagocytosis and tanning has occurred.

29

What pigment is found in people of Asian decent?

Carotene