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AATBS EPPP 2017 > Lifespan > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lifespan Deck (129):
1

polygenic

influenced by multiple genes (height, weight, IQ, personality)

2

A dominant trait can be due to ____ or ____

HOMOzygous: both are the same (HH, hh)
---OR---
HETEROzygous: both different (Hh)

3

examples of homozygous traits due one single dominant gene (Hh)

brown eyes, dark hair, farsightedness
(most common)

4

examples of homozygous traits due to 2 recessive genes (hh)

green/hazel/blue eyes, blonde hair, nearsightedness

5

an alternative form of a gene is called ______

an allele

6

Rutter's family risk factors for child psychopathology

severe marital discord
low SES
overcrowding/large family size
parent criminality
MATERNAL psychopathology
child placed outside home

7

Kauai study (Werner) positive outcomes for high risk infants due to:

*fewer stressors following birth
*easy temperament = high social responsively, good communication skills, consistent eating/sleeping patterns
*stable caregiver support

8

canalization

genotype restricts phenotype to small number of outcomes
(think "canal")

9

reaction range

status within the range depends on environmental factors
width of the range depends on genetic factors

10

genotype-environment correlations

*passive--> child inherits traits, parents provide environment to develop those traits
*evocative --> child's genetic makeup "evokes" reactions from parents/others that reinforce it
*active --> "niche picking" == child actively seeks out experiences consistent with genetic predisposition

11

critical periods vs sensitive periods

critical = specific and predetermined (e.g., imprinting goslings)
sensitive = longer, more flexible; not closely tied to age or maturation stage

12

prenatal development

0-2 weeks: germinal stage (zygote)
3-8 weeks: embryonic stage (major structural damage if exposed to teratogens)
9 weeks-birth: fetal stage

13

Dominant gene disorders

single dominant gene from one parent
Huntington's

14

Recessive gene disorders

2 recessive genes
PKU
cystic fibrosis
Tay-Sachs
sickle-cell

15

chromosomal disorders

variation in number or structure of chromosomes

16

aneuploidy

not correct number of chromosomes
Down = extra 21st
Klinefelter = 2 or more X with single Y (XXY, XXXY, etc)
Turner = female with single X

17

chromosomal deletion

part of chromosome missing
Prader-Willi

18

translocation

segment of chromosome transfers to another chromosome
(sometimes in Down extra 21 is elsewhere)

19

inversion

segment of chromosome breaks in 2 places, inverts and reattaches

20

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

FAS: most severe form
less severe:
*ARND: neuro disorder (no physical signs)
*ARBD: physical signs only (birth defects)

21

maternal conditions affecting baby

Rubella: heart defects, blind, deaf, ID
CMV: ID, hearing/visual impairments
HIV/AIDS: 20-30% transmission at birth; >1% if antiretrovial Rx used (50% survive to age 10)
malnutrition: low folic acid = neural tube defects

22

age of prematurity

less than 37 weeks

23

birthweight survivability

3.3 lbs (1500g)

24

SGA (small for gestational age)

below 10 %ile
develops less than normal rate
increased risk for asphyxia at birth, respiratory disease, hypoglycemia, LD, ADHD

25

brain mass at birth

25% of adult weight
(80% by age 2)
full weight by age 16

26

development of cerebral cortex

almost completely undeveloped at birth
first few months: motor and sensory areas develop
prefrontal develops thru childhood, adolescence, into 20s

27

pattern of brain development

cephalocaudal: from head (cephalo) to tail (caudal)
proximodistal: from center (proximo) to extremities (distal)

28

brain starts to shrink after age ___
accelerated brain cell death after age ___

shrinks after age 30
cell death after age 60

29

order of brain cell atrophy

frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
NEW NEURONS in hippocampus!

30

development of vision in infants

birth - soft focus
2-5 days after birth - faces
by 2 mos prefer mom's face to other women
6 mos - acuity close to adult
depth perception - kinetic cues, then binocular cues, then pictorial cues

31

auditory localization

some localization after birth
2-4 mos localization disappears, then reappears
3 mos - prefer mom's voice

32

Motor milestones (1-3 mos)

raise chin, turn head
by 3 mos plays with hands/fingers
objects to mouth

33

Motor milestones (4-6 mos)

rolls over
5 mos sits on lap, reaches/grasps
6 mos sits alone, stands with help

34

First teeth

5-9 months

35

Motor milestones (7-9 mos)

increased coordination
8-9 mos sits alone, crawling/creeping

36

Motor milestones (9-10 mos)

pulls up to stand

37

Motor milestones (10-12 mos)

stands alone, walks with help
12 mos first steps alone

38

Motor milestones (13-15 mos)

wide-based gait, walks alone
15 mos creeps up stairs, uses cup, scribbles

39

Motor milestones (16-24 mos)

18 mos runs clumsily, walks up stairs with hand held, uses spoon
24 mos up/down stairs alone, kicks ball, turns pages, 50% toilet during day

40

Motor milestones (25-48 mos)

30 mos jumps with both feet, good hand-finger coordination
36 mos rides trike, dresses/undresses, complete toiling
48 mos hand preference

41

Age of puberty

GROWTH SPURTS:
girls 11-12 y.o.
boys 13-14 y.o.

FULL STATURE:
girls 15 yo
boys 17 yo

42

assimilation vs accommodation

assimilation = incorporate a new schema into existing knowledge
accommodation = modify existing schema to accommodate new knowledge (You accommodate a guest by modifying your home)

43

sensorimotor stage age?

0-2 yo

44

circular reactions
6 substages and ages

substage 1 (0-1 mo) Reflexive schemes
substage 2 (1-4 mo) PRIMARY circular reactions --> repeat a pleasurable activity with BODY
substage 3 (4-8 mo) SECONDARY circular reactions --> repeat pleasurable activity with OTHERS and OBJECTS
substage 4 (8-12 mo) COORDINATED SECONDARY circular reactions --> combines secondary cr.'s into sequences
substage 5 (12-18 mo) TERTIARY circular reactions --> deliberately varies action sequence to discover consequences
substage 6 (18-24 mo) Mental Representation --> representational (symbolic) thought

45

When does object permanence start?

substage 4

46

Accomplishments of Sensorimotor stage

emergence of deferred imitation & make-believe play
beginning to understand causality

47

Preoperational stage age?

2-7

48

semiotic function

symbolic function
learns through symbol use

49

precausal (transductive) reasoning

incomplete understanding of cause/effect
ex: magical thinking, animism

50

egocentrism

cannot take another's perspective
world centers on self

51

irreversibility

doesn't know actions can be reversed

52

centration

focus on most noticeable features of objects

53

conservation

cannot conserve in pre operational stage

54

Hallmarks of pre operational stage

precausal (transductive) reasoning
egocentrism
irreversibility
centration
CANNOT conserve

55

Concrete Operational stage ages

7-11

56

Hallmarks of Concrete Operational stage

mental operations
classification becomes more sophisticated
seriation
part-to-whole relationships
conservation (happens gradually)

57

order of conservation

number
liquid
length
weight
volume

58

"horizontal decalage"

gradual acquisition of an ability (such as conservation)

59

Formal Operations ages

11 or 12+ and up

60

Hallmark of Formal Operations

abstract thinking
hypothetico-deductive reasoning
renewed egocentrism
("adolescent egocentrism" -- Elkind)
---> personal fable
---> imaginary audience

61

information processing theory

compares mind to computer
* focus on specific domains (not overall global principles)
* cognitive ability = task-specific
* unevenness across domains and contexts = normal development

62

Vygotsky's sociocultural theory

all learning is socially mediated
cognitive development is first INTERpersonal, then INTRA personal
scaffolding is most effective
pretend play provides a ZPD to practice

63

reciprocal teaching method

teacher models instruction
students take over and teach each other

64

Theory of Mind (ToM) ages and stages

2-3 yo: becomes aware of others' mental states
people have different emotions, perceptions
4-5 yo: understand others' thoughts may be false and may act on their false beliefs
after age 5: BY AGE 6 - peoples actions are not always consistent with true thoughts and feelings; people interpret events (not just record); different people interpret events differently
Adolescence: people can have mixed feelings about events and others

65

Theory of mind is affected by:

degree of engagement in pretend play
level of school adjustment
mature of parent-child interactions
# of siblings

66

Ages and stages of memory

0-3 mo: recognition memory up to 24 hrs later
6-12 mo: can imitate series of actions after delay
by 9-10 years old: uses memory strategies:
---rehearsal
---organization
---elaboration

67

"synchrony effect"

older adults' peak arousal and task performance - AM
younger adults peak arousal/task performance - PM

68

retention function (of memory)

adults remember more of recent events (past 20 years)

69

reminiscence bump

older adults real more events as 10-30 yo.

70

age-related memory decline

explicit memory
recent long-term memory
working memory aspect of short-term memory
episodic memory

71

aspects of memory unaffected by age

remote long-term
memory span
sensory memory
semantic
procedural

72

nativist theory of language development

biological mechanisms and universal patterns
innate LAD (lang acquisition device)
acquire language by exposure
by ages 4-6 master basics of language regardless of complexity

73

behaviorist theory of language development

language acquired like any other behavior
(imitation and reinforcement)

74

interactionist theory of language development

combo of biological + environment
social-communications=stresses social interactions
*parentese/motherese
*asking questions
*exaggerate/repeat important words
* respond to child with:
---extension --> adds info to child's statement
---expansion --> adds to it, but retains child's word order

75

extension vs expansion

extension= adds info to child's statement (may change word order)
expansion=adds to child's statement (retains word order)

76

types of bootstrapping

semantic: use of meaning to infer grammatical category
syntactic: use of syntax to infer meaning
prosodic: use of prosody to infer syntax
morphological: use of morphemes to infer syntax or meaning

77

language structure

surface -- organization
deep structure -- meaning
speaking= transforms deep meaning into surface
listening=transforms surface into deep meaning

78

stages of language acquisition

crying (0-4 mos)
cooing (6-8 wks) & babbling (4 mos)
echolalia and expressive jargon (9 mos)
first words/holophrastic speech (10-15 mos)
telegraphic speech (18-24 mos)
vocabulary growth (18-36 mos)
grammatically correct sentences (2.5 - 5 yrs)
metalinguistic awareness (early school years)

79

types of crying

hunger
anger
pain (gets strongest response from all adults)
add fussy cry at 1-2 mos
***mother's prompt and consistent response to crying in early months = decreased frequency and duration of crying later***

80

holophrastic vs telegraphic speech

holo = "whole" = one word
tele = "far off" = two words (think of telegraph)

81

rapid vocabulary growth?

age 18 mos starts
age 36 mos = fastest growth (1,000 words)
age 2.5 -5 = 50 words/month

82

at what age do children use humor and metaphor?

by age 6-7

83

under extension vs overextension

UNDERextension=applies word too narrowly
(e.g., "dish" only to his dish)
OVERextension=applies word too broadly
(e.g., all animals are "doggie")

84

overregularization

applies usual grammar rule incorrectly
e.g., "tooths" or "holded")

85

Thomas and Chess 3 types of temperament

Easy
Difficult
Slow-to-Warm up

86

Freud's stages

oral (0-1 yo) -- conflict: weaning
anal (1-3 yo) -- conflict: toilet training
phallic (3-6 yo) -- conflict: Oedipal
latency (6-12 yo) -- conflict: diffuse libidinal energy
genital (12+ yo) -- conflict: sex + affection

87

Erickson's stages

basic trust vs mistrust (infancy)
autonomy vs shame/doubt (toddlerhood)
initiative vs guilt (early childhood)
industry vs inferiority (school age)
identity vs role confusion (adolescence)
intimacy vs isolation (young adult)
generatively vs stagnation (middle adult)
ego integrity vs despair (mature/old age)

88

Levinson's "seasons of a man's life" (3 transitions)

early adult transition (17-22 yo): tasks are independence from parents; career choice (college, military, job)
"The Dream": image of ideal life that guides decisions/choices

Age 30 transition (28-33): life structure of 20s is inadequate; pressure to fully enter adult world; revision of life structure; followed by "settling down"

mid-life transition (40-45): significant stress/reorganization; deflation of The Dream; goals are not really satisfying or not fully accomplished, increased awareness of mortality
SHIFT: "time since birth" to "time left to live"

89

Baumrind parenting styles based on ____ and ___

responsiveness + demandingness

90

Baumrind's parenting styles (4)

Authoritative -- high demand + high responsive
***linked to conscience development***
AuthoritarIAN -- high demand + low responsive
(obedience, physical punishment, threats, power assertion) Child=irritable, aggressive, dependent, low self-esteem, low academics
Permissive (Indulgent) -- low demand + high responsive
Rejecting/Neglecting -- low demand + low responsive
Child=juvenile delinquency

91

Authoritative

high demand + high responsive

92

Authoritarian

high demand + low responsive

93

Permissive (Indulgent)

low demand + high responsive

94

Rejecting/Neglecting

low demand + low responsive

95

When does self-awareness begin?

2nd year of life
physical: 18 mos
self-description: 19-30 mos
focus on concrete physical characteristics, behaviors and preferences: 2-6 yo
competencies: 6-10 yo (middle childhood)
personality traits/emotions toward self: 10-12 yo
inner thoughts/feelings: adolescence

96

gender identity is formed by age ___

3

97

psychodynamic theory of gender identity

depends on successful resolution of phallic stage

98

cognitive development theory of gender identity (Kohlberg)

(2-3 yo) Identity: recognition of gender
(4-5 yo) Stability: gender stays same over time
(6-7 yo) Constancy: gender is constant over situations (can't be altered by situation or changing appearance)

99

Bem's gender schema theory

social learning + cognitive development
"schemas" result of sociocultural experiences --> organizes perception of the world

100

multidimensional model of gender identity

membership knowledge
gender typicality
gender contentedness
felt pressure for gender conformity
intergroup bias

101

degrees of self-esteem based on gender

androgyny: greater flexibility/coping, higher life satisfaction, highest self-esteem
masculinity: lesser degree of self-esteem
femininity: least self-esteem

102

racial awareness in children

infants (6 mos) awareness of racial differences
3-4 yo label people by racial group
10 yo understand social connotation of racial differences

103

Marcia adolescent identity development model

DFMA
DIFFUSION: no crisis, no commitment to identity
FORECLOSURE: no crisis, adopted identity (from parent/ other adult)
MORATORIUM: identity crisis; explores alternatives
(put id 'on hold' to explore)
ACHIEVEMENT: resolved crises, committed to identity

104

Gilligan's "relational crisis"

11-12 yo girls
high pressure to be "perfect good woman" -- disconnect from self to connect with others
"loss of voice" -- realize female not valued
low academics, loss of self-esteem, increased psych problems
Adults need to help girls maintain "healthy resistance to disconnection"

105

personality traits are relatively stable especially after age __

30

106

greatest trait changes happen in _____

young adulthood

107

these traits increase over the lifespan

agreeableness
social dominance
conscientiousness
emotional stability

108

these traits are stable in early-mid adulthood, decrease after age 55

social vitality
openness to experience

109

Kubler-Ross' 5 stages of grief

DABDA
denial & isolation
anger
bargaining
depression
acceptance

110

children - 3 stages of understanding death

non functionality
irreversibility
universality

111

child understanding of death

ages 2-5: death is reversible and temporary
(feelings of separation/abandonment)
ages 5-9: gradual awareness of irreversibility
(personify it e.g., "ghost" or "skeleton")
by age 10: non functionality, irreversibility, universality

112

Bowlby "internal working model" of attachment

critical period - first year (0-2 yo)
1. pre attachment
2. attachment-in-the-making
3. clearcut attachment
4. reciprocal relationships

113

social referencing happens by age _____

6 mos

114

separation anxiety ages ____, peaks at ____

6-8 mos, peaks 14-18 mos

115

stranger anxiety

by 8-10 mos, up until age 2

116

anaclytic depression

response to institutionalization at 6-12 mos
term used in 1930s
could include physical retardation, disruption of visual-motor skills and language

117

Adult Attachment Interview

Autonomous: coherent description of childhood relationship to parents
**have securely attached children**
Dismissing: + description of childhood, but NOT supported by memories or contradicted by memories
**have avoid ant children**
Preoccupied: angry when describing childhood relationship with parents --OR-- passively preoccupied with one parent
** have resistant/ambivalent children**

118

coercive family interaction model

(a) children learn aggressive behavior from parents who don't reinforce prosocial behaviors, use harsh discipline, reward aggressiveness
(b) aggressive parent-child interactions escalate

119

Parent Management Training (PMT)

stops coercive family interaction cycle

120

factors contributing to aggression

**self-efficacy beliefs
**beliefs about outcomes of behavior
**regret/remorse

121

"hostile attribution bias"

misinterprets acts of others as intentionally hostile

122

Piaget stages of MORAL development

PREMORAL (before age 6) -- little concern for rules
HETERONOMOUS (7-10 yo) -- rules set by authority; unalterable
AUTONOMOUS (11+ yo) -- cooperation; rules are arbitrary and alterable

123

Kohlberg's stages of moral development

preconventional
--punishment & obedience orientation
(rightness depends on punishment)
--instrumental hedonism
(judgement based on obtaining rewards)
conventional
--good by/good girl
(right action is one that is liked or approved by others)
--law and order
(based on rules/laws)
post-conventional
--morality of contract, indiv rights and demo accept laws
(based on demo determined laws)
--morality of independent principles of conscience
(broad, self-chosen universally applied ethics

124

Gilligan's moral development model

anti-Kohlberg (only applies to males)
Level 1: orientation of individual survival
----transition 1 ----- from selfish to responsibility
Level 2: goodness as self-sacrifice
-----transition 2 -----from goodness to truth
Level 3: morality of nonviolence

125

Gottman - 2 interaction patterns predict divorce

early divorce --> emotionally volatile attack-defend pattern
later divorce --> emotionally inexpressive pattern

126

Gottman's 4 horsemen of the apocalype

criticism
defensiveness
contempt
stonewalling

127

effects of divorce on children (age)

preschoolers: more initial problems
older children: more long-term consequences

128

effects of divorce on children (gender)

"sleeper effect": girls in preschool/elementary don't show negative consequences until adolescence (noncompliant, low self-esteem, sexual promiscuous)
then in adulthood: increased risk of depression, anxiety about betrayal/abandonment, choosing psych unstable spouse, divorce

Boys: grater distress initially

Girls with step-fathers = worse outcome

129

types of play

Non-Social
**unoccupied play: random, no goal
**onlooker play: watches but doesn't participate, may comment
**solitary play
Social
**parallel play: alongside, shares toys, no interaction
**associative play: interaction but without organization or shared goals
**cooperative play: organized interactions to achieve common goal