Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

AATBS EPPP 2017 > Social Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (23):
1

schemata (schemas) are:

organized, interconnected mental networks of information
based on previous personal and social experiences
help process knowledge that allows you to make judgements and predict future actions

2

prototypes are:

more abstract than schemata
knowledge about most ideal or representative example of a particular category of people

3

Scripts are:

aka, event schemas
provide knowledge about appropriate sequence of behaviors in particular social situations

4

What is a "central trait"?

Traits that provide unique information, are associated with a late number of other characteristics, and carry more weight (i.e., "warm" vs "cold")

5

Heuristics are:

mental shortcuts used when making attributions and other social judgments

6

types of heuristics

Representativeness
Availability
Simulation
Anchoring and Adjustment

7

basing judgment about likelihood something belongs to a category based on how representative they are while ignoring probability data.

Representativeness heuristic

8

judging likelihood or frequency of an event based on how easy it is to retrieve info about it from LT memory

Availability Heuristic

9

using mental simulations of event to determine likelihood that the event will happen

Simulation Heuristic

10

using an initial value (anchor) as basis for making judgment or estimate.

Anchoring and Adjustment

11

Gain-loss effect

like others who initially dislike us then change mind
needs to reflect a true "change of heart"

12

self-perception theory

when internal cues are insufficient or difficult to interpret, we acquire info about self by observing external behaviors and/or context

13

elaboration likelihood model of persuasion

Central route --> systematic processing of info
--best when: message is interesting/important; ability to process info; listener in neutral or slightly negative mood
--extent of attitude change depends on QUALITY of the argument
--message is important
--Messenger is not high status

Peripheral route --> relies on mental shortcuts (heuristics)
--best when: listener is unmotivated due to boring or unimportant message; lacks ability to process message; listener is in a POSITIVE mood
--attitude change depends on QUANTITY of arguments, presence of persuasive cues (attractiveness, status).
--message is UNimportant; message appeals to FEAR
--Messenger: high status, appealing

14

Cognitive Errors/Biases

Base rate fallacy
Confirmation bias
illusory correlation
false consensus effect
gambler's fallacy

15

Attribution Errors

Fundamental attribution error (OTHERS)
--> underestimate situational
--> overestimate dispositional
actor-observer effect (SELF) -- opposite of fundamental
-->overestimate situational
-->underestimate dispositional
self-serving bias (SELF)
--> Failures: low dispositional + high situational
--> Successes: high dispositional + low situational

16

Group Tasks

Additive --> group product is sum of all members' contribution
Complimentary --> each member contributes different abilities
CONjunctive --> product determined by LEAST competent member
DISjunctive --> product determined by MOST skilled member
Compensatory --> average of all members' input

17

Types of Aggression

relational:
--proactive--> aggression used as means to social goal
--reactive --> aggression in response to provocation; intent to retaliate

18

Threats of retaliation work if:

Retaliator is high status/power
(Threats increase aggression if retaliator has previously provoked person)

19

Misattribution of memory (Schacter)

source confusion
cyptomnesia: can't recall if you or someone else generated the idea
false recall/false recognition

20

Azjen's theory of planned behavior

3 components to behavioral intention:
attitude
beliefs
perceived behavioral control

21

Primacy vs recency effect

Primacy
-2nd message immediately after 1st
-measure of attitude change is LATER time

Recency
-2nd message is after period of time passes
-measure of attitude change is IMMEDIATELY after 2nd message

22

Heider's Balance Theory

relationship between person [P], other person [O], and an object/thing [X].
balance: when two people like same thing
imbalance: when 2 people do not like same thing - causes attitude change toward other person or the object

23

Social Judgment Theory

3 categories of judgment to evaluate a persuasive message:
*latitude of acceptance
*latitude of rejection
*latitude of non-commitment