Flashcards in Lifespan Midterm Deck (124)
Over the past 20-30 years special emphasis has been directed towards which four subgroups?
-women, oldest old (over 85)/ frail elderly or extremely old, racial minor ties, ethnic minorities
Overall the _ _ is rising.
Overall the MEDIAN AGE is rising
Mortality patterns: _ of all deaths occur at age _ or _, expected to be _ by 2030. _ of all deaths occur at age _ or _, expected to rise by _% by 2050.
70% of all deaths occur at age 65 or OLDER, expected to be 80% by 2030.
18% of all deaths occur at age 85 or OLDER, expected to rise by to 43% by 2050.
The US census bureau defines: 55-64 as _. 65-84 as _. 85+ as _.
55-64 as OLDER
65-84 as ELDERLY
85+ as OLDEST OLD
Gender composition: age 65 and older- women _ men _:_; age 85 and older- women _ men _:_.
Age 65 and older- women OUTNUMBER men 3:2
Age 85 and older- women OUTNUMBER men 5:2
Marital status: _ of males over 65 are married. _ of females over age 65 are widowed.
75% of males over 65 are married
65% of females over 65 are widowed
What is the divorce rate for those 65 or older? Is on the _ over the past two decades. Remarriages? Is on the _ over the past decade.
7% divorce rate for those over 65 or older
Is on the RISE over the past two decades.
Remarriage a had been SIGNIFICANTLY LOW
Is on the RISE over the past decade
Proportion of never-married males? Females?
Both are approx. 12.5%
Living arrangements: 60% of women over the age of 75 live _. 80% of men over 65 live?
60% of women over the age of 75 live ALONE
80% of men over 65 live WITH ANOTHER FAMILY MEMBER
What is the current life expectancy? Projected trends by 2050?
77.3 years- current
82.5 years- projected trends
Not all _ _ age at the same rate. There is no _ _ theory of aging.
Not all SOMATIC CELLS age at the same rate
There is no UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED theory of aging
Senescence is defined as _, _ _ in aged organisms that predispose them to _ _ and _.
Senescence is defined as NONREVERSIBLE, DETERIORATED CHANGES in aged organisms that predispose them to FATAL DISEASE and DEATH
3 Somatic cell catagories?
-fixed postmiotic cells
-reverting postmiotic cells
-continuously proliferating cells
Continuously proliferating cells _ _ to replicate themselves, these cells _ through _.
Continuously proliferating cells NEVER CEASE to replicate themselves, these cells HEAL THROUGH REGENERATION
Reverting postmiotic cells have a _ _ of division, when injured will _ _ the _ of _ and _.
Reverting postmiotic cells have a SLOWER RATE of division, when injured will SPEED UP the RATE OF DIVISION AND REGENERATION.
Fixed postmiotic cells _ _ after _, only able to _ _ if the _ is intact. _ _ cells are produced.
Fixed postmiotic cells NEVER REPLICATE after MATURITY, only able to REPAIR THEMSELVES if the NUCLEUS is intact.
NO NEW cells are produced.
What type of somatic cell are kidney and liver cells?
Reverting postmiotic cells
What type of somatic cells are lung, cardiac?
Fixed postmiotic cells
What type of somatic cells are superficial skin cells, intestinal lining, RBC's, and bone marrow?
Continuously proliferating cells
What two specific types of cells are controversially considered fixed postmiotic cells?
Muscle and neuron cells
According to the _/ _ theories the mechanism of aging is predetermined and located in the nucleus, and is genetically controlled. AKA?
According to the DEVELOPMENTAL/ GENETIC THEORIES the mechanisms . . . .
AKA: PROGRAMMED THEORIES
What are the 4 theories that are considered developmental/ genetic/ programmed theories?
-Hayflick Limit theory
-Error and Repair theory
Neuroendocrine theory states that the _-_-_ _ (_) controls aging, and acts through _ to control the _ of aging.
States that the HYPOTHALMIC- PITUITARY- ADRENAL AXIS (HPA) controls aging, and acts through HORMONES to control the PACE of aging.
With the Neuroendocrine theory, the _ regulates the release of various hormones throughout the body. Hormones affect _, _, _ _, _, and _. Example in the body?
Neuroendocrine theory, the HYPOTHALAMUS regulates the release of various hormones throughout the body.
Hormones affect (G MIST) GROWTH, METABOLISMS, INFLAMMATION, STRESS and TEMPERATURE REGULATION.
According to the error and repair theory the production of _ and the _ of _ is not always carried out with accuracy.
According to the error and repair theory the production of PROTEINS and the REPRODUCTION OF DNA is not always carried out with accuracy.
Error and repair theory: the system is incapable of _ _ _ every time, therefore the _ of these _ _ leads to _ of the organism.
The system is incapable of MAKING PERFECT REPAIRS every time, therefore the ACCUMULATION of these FLAWED DNA leads to SENESCENCE of the organism
The _ _ theory studied cell division in lung tissue and discovered that cells are able to replicate _-_ times.
The HAYFLICK LIMIT theory studied cell division in lung tissue and discovered that cells are able to replicate 40-60 TIMES.
According to Hayflick limit theory cells begin to _ _ toward the end of their _ to _. These changes include?
Cells begin to LOOK DIFFERENT toward the end of their ABILITY TO REPLICATE.
These changes include LIPOFUSCIN (age pigments)
The _ _ is an extension of the Hayflick Limit theory, and states that in the normal process of _ _, the end of the chromosome is _ _ _ , which leaves and _ _.
The TELOMERIC THEORY is an extension of the Hayflick limit theory, and states that in the normal process of DNA REPLICATION, the end of the chromosome is NOT COPIED EXACTLY, which leaves an UNREPLICATED GAP.