Flashcards in Lifestyle factors and disease Deck (22)
Top 5 leading causes of death in females 50-64 years-old, in England and Wales.
1. Malignant neoplasms of the trachea, bronchus and lung.
2. Malignant neoplasm of the breast.
3. Ischaemic heart disease.
4. Chronic disease of the LRT.
5. Cirrhosis and other liver disease
Top 5 leading causes of death in males 50-64 years-old, in England and Wales.
1. Ischaemic heart disease.
2. Malignant neoplasm of the lung, bronchus and trachea.
3. Cirrhosis and other liver diseases.
4. Chronic LRT disease.
5. Malignant neoplasm of the anus, colon and rectum.
Top 5 leading causes of death in females 65-79 years-old, in England and Wales.
1. Malignant neoplasm of the lung, bronchus and trachea.
2. Chronic LRT disease
3. Ischaemic heart disease
4. Dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
5. Cerebrovascular disease.
Top 5 leading causes of death in males 65-79 years-old, in England and Wales.
1. Ischaemic heart disease.
2. Malignant neoplasm of the lung, trachea and bronchus.
3. Chronic LRT disease.
4. Cerebrovascular disease
5. Neoplasm of the prostate.
4 key health protective behaviours
1. Not smoking.
2. Exercise/ Physical activity 30 mins a day.
3. 1-14 units of alcohol a week.
4. 5+ serving of fruits and veg a day.
Screening for certain conditions can help catch diseases earlier and implement treatment more effectively:
Examples of health protective behaviours
Examples of risk behaviours
Recreational drug use
The magnitude of the benefits of engaging in all health behaviours rather than one.
In all causes of disease, engaging in all 4 behaviours rather than none decreases risk by x3.5.
In other causes of disease that isn't CVS or cancer, this risk is reduced by almost x7.
The significance of the observed does-response effect
By choosing to undertake 1 key health protective behaviour, this decreases the risk significantly in all causes of disease.
So by choosing to not undertake one behaviour, risk is increased at least by around 0.5x.
Biopsychosocial health promotion techniques
Involves the promotion and evaluation of 'healthy' lifestyle programmes:
Health risk behaviors
Early identification of people at higher rish
Legislative action and government initiates.
Psychological model for health behaviour.
States that there are three key elements needed to influence behavioural change:
Each component can be applied to other health behaviour theories: Transtheoretical, TPB and HBM.
Health belief model for health behaviour.
Model states that behavioural change is more likely to happen if individuals think they are more likely to get a disease/ condition:
Perceived severity and susceptibility- motivation for behavioural change, that comes with received information.
Individuals also weight the cost and benefits of changing their behaviour- perceived costs and benefits.
This influences their motivation to change their behaviour.
Cues to action remind individuals of perceived benefits, increasing motivation.
Individuals also need self-efficacy, a behavioural skill, to ensure behavioural change.
Theory of planned behaviour
The main factor that causes behavioural change is the change in intention of the individual- i.e for an individual to stop smoking, they must genuinely intend to do so.
Intention is influenced by:
- The attitude of the individual
- The subjective norm around the behaviour. This is what an individual perceives others to think of a certain behaviour
- Behavioural control (behaviour skill)
Limitations of the models: TPB, HBM
They are linear:
They assume that the changing certain factors will definitely change behaviour
Doesn't account for the fact that some may relapse in behaviour.
The models explain why one may undergo behavioural change but doesn't explain why one may not continue
Health behaviour model that considers relapse- where change in behaviour is not continued.
1. Precontemplation- individual does not know behaviour risk has negative effect.
2. Contemplation- Individual receives information in a convincing way that allows them to consider negative effects of their behaviour.
3. Preparation- Individual has decided to change behaviour and plans how to do so.
4. Action- Behavioural change is undertaken.
5 Maintenance- Behavioural change is maintained
Relapse can occur at steps 2-4, going back to contemplation or preparation.
A method of getting people to change their behaviour by setting an efficient goal.
1 on 1 interviews that helps people initiate and sustain changed:
Enhances motivation and commitment to change
Addresses barriers to change
Overcomes ambivalence about behaviour change
Psychological factors that change unhealthy behaviour
Interventions with high-risk individuals
Interventions for a population
Cultural change- can be influenced by changes in legislations
Social factors that change unhealthy behaviour
Limitations of health behaviour models
Much of the variance in the models are not explained
Probabilistic- doesn't explain exceptions
Does not address maintaining change
They can over exaggerate rationalising