Lifestyle factors and CVD Flashcards Preview

Module 103, theme 5: Impacts of lifestyle on cardiovascular and respiratory health > Lifestyle factors and CVD > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lifestyle factors and CVD Deck (28)
Loading flashcards...

3 pathways in which lifestyle factors affect CVD

1. Via health-related behaviours

2. By causing acute or chronic physiological changes that lead to CHD.

3. Via access to and use of medical care.


Physical, immutable CVD risk factors.



Family history



Psychosocial, modifiable CVD risk factors

Health behaviours



Social support



Metabolic syndrome

Factor than increases CVD risk, described as:

Being overweight and have great abdominal fat distribution.

Having hypertension

Insulin resistance



5+ fruit and veg a day and risk of CVD

Those who were not having 5+ a day:

1.7 x likely to die early from CVD

1.4 x more likely to have a stroke.


Fat intake and risk of CVD

Those in top 20% of total fat intake:
1.3 x more likely to develop CVD

Top 20% saturated fat:
1.5 x more likely to develop CVD.


Smoking and CVD risk

Compared to non-smokers:

1.9x more likely to die early from CVD
1.7 x more likely to have a stroke.

Compared to CHD patients who keep smoking, those quitted had:
36% lower risk of premature death
32 % lower risk of re-infarct.


Exercise and CVD health risk

Those below activity threshold:
1.3 x more likely to die early from CVD.

1.3 x more likely to have a stroke.


Demographic and psychosocial factors on CVD risk

Lower classes have greater CVD risk:
Compared to top 20% income, bottom 20% have
2.7 x risk of CVD death

4.3 x greater risk of AML.

However, adjustment for behavioural risk factors:
lower 20% have no greater risk of CVD compared to top 20%

Have A 2.8 X greater risk of AMI.


Association between socioeconomic status and CVD

Those in a lower SES more likely to develop CVD

Large part of this is attributed to differences in:

Biological markers: more likely to have hypertension and cholesterol

Behavioural factors:
More likely to smoke, have a worse diet, exercise less.

Psychosocial factors:
More likely to be depressed and have social support.


Why do people risk their health?

Biased risk perception:
Health optimism, don't think it would happen to them

General risk vs Personal risk; even though there are stats for risk in the general population, it is difficult to personalise that risk.

People underestimate the impact of diet and exercise, whilst acknowledge other risk factors for MI and other CVD.


Patients and their underestimation of what they think caused MI

Those in hospital and 2-2.5yrs after discharge mainly attributed the cause to stress and smoking.

25% in hospital didn't know.

Men more likely to cite poor diet and hard work.

Women more likely to cite chance/ bad luck.


Factors that affect getting to hospital on time- speed of treatment

Shorter time:

Being male

Being married

Believing MI has more serious consequences

Active coping style

More non-pain symptoms


Physical responses to stress

Physical: fight/flight, acute situations.


Behavioural response to stress

Poor diet




Causes chronic stress- increase CVD risk


Emotional response to stress




Chronic stress- Increase risk of CVD


Cognitive response to stress

Lack of concentration- acute/ chronic


Coping responses to stress

Problem solving: managing the stress in short and long term.

Psychological/ Behavioural distraction: avoidance.
Not thinking about it or eatin/smoking to cope with stress.


Epidemiological studies on stress

Acute stress associated with MI and cardiac death

MI and CD increase after disasters- 9/11, world cup.


Animal studies on stress

Showed that chronic stress induces atherosclerosis

Lowere threshold for arrhythmia


Experimental studies on stress

Shows that acute stress triggers ischaemia in patients with CHD

Acute stress is also associated with CV changes; BP, HR.


Stress and ischaemia

Acute stress triggers iscahemia in CHD patients.

Intense physical activity
Stressful mental activity
feeling tense, frustrated, angry or sad.

Job strain- chronic stress
Associated with increased CVD risk
- demand in workplace is high
- Control of stress is low
- Lack of support in workplace


Personality and CVD risk

Type A personality:
Hard driving competitive behaviour
Vigorous speech characteristics
Potential for hostility

May be a risk factor for CHD in health people but not for those who already have CHD.

Hostility is the most important component.


Hostility and CHD

Independent predictor of CHD incidence.

Significant interaction with waist-to-hip ratio


Emotional impact of CHD

Post MI:

Up to 30% are depressed

Around 40% have anxiety

Up to 15% have PTSD


Depression and MI

2-3x more common after MI compared to other times in life.

Independant predictor of premature death in CHD patients

Associated with poor adherence to medication or lifestyle modification post MI.

Effective treatment of depression may improve survival in MI patients.


Cardiac rehab

Health education and promotion

Behavioural change

Stress management

Psychotherapy for depression and anxiety

Support groups.

SMART goals and Dual-process model is used to tailor needs and preference of patient.


Effects of cardiac rehab

20% reduction in overall mortality + 36% reduction in cardiac mortality.

Reduces smoking BUT NOT:
Re-infarction rates
Quality of life significantly

Half of patients drop out

Patients who do not attend perceive medication as being more important for promoting health.