Lifestyle factors and respiratory disease Flashcards Preview

Module 103, theme 5: Impacts of lifestyle on cardiovascular and respiratory health > Lifestyle factors and respiratory disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lifestyle factors and respiratory disease Deck (15)
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1

The common cold and its effects

It is the most common URI, caused by over 200 viruses.

Has a very massive economic impact on society.

UTIs account for 50% of all acute illnesses- major cause of morbidity and mortality.

2

Being cold and developing the cold

There isn't a simple cause-effect link between them.

Could be because reflex vasoconstriction in nose and upper airways inhibits respiratory defence.

3

Sleep and developing the cold

Sleep quality may be an important predictor of immunity.

Sleep duration and efficiency may affect development of a cold.

4

Vitamin C (megadose) and its effects on the cold:
Incidence
Duration

Incidence:
Does not reduce incidence significantly in the general public- but it does in those who are under a lot of physical stress (i.e athletes)

In prophylaxis for cold duration it decreased significantly in child and adults.

Did not decrease significantly for therapy.

5

Effects of echinacea and the cold:
Prophylaxis and incidence
Prophylaxis and duration

Showed 10-20% reduction in incidence in pooled results but not individual trials.

No significant effect on the duration of the cold.

6

Stress and risk of the common cold

Chronic stress linked with developing cold (stress >1 month)
Especially interpersonal stress.

Chronic stress AND smoking increases risk of developing a cold significantly.

Other risks:
Smoking
Lack of exercise
Poor sleep
Increased alcohol

7

Sociability and risk of developing colds

Low sociability saw increase in development of cold.

Those of higher Socioeconomic class have less prevalence of colds.
- Poorer sleep and health behaviours seen in those with lower SES

8

Hand washing and the risk of respiratory infections

Reduces risk respiratory infections.

Increase in usage of other interventions like alcohol gel dispensers also decreases incidence.

9

Physical aspects that influence the onset of asthma

Genetic vulnerability

10

Demographic factors that influence the onset of asthma

Age- seen in younger people.

Sex- more common in men

SES- more common in lower SES

Ethnic minority

Young maternal age

11

Lifestyle factors that influence the asthmatic onset and episodes

Onset:
Maternal smoking during pregnancy.

Maternal anxiety

Smoking at home

Violence at home.

Episodes:
Smoke
Pollution
Intense exercise

12

Physical factors that influence asthmatic episoders

Allergens

Food allergies

Chest infections

Chemical fumes

Cold weather.

13

Psychosocial factors in asthma

Asthma symptoms exacerbated by stress- since stress affects immune system, this may be the correlation.

Underlying RTI can be exacerbated by acute stress and cause asthma.

Dysregulation of cortisol response to stress may be important in chronic asthma.

Anxiety disorders= worse asthma symptoms

Asthmatics are not good at monitoring minor symptoms.

14

Smoking cessation methods

Nicotine replacement

Bupropion

Smoking cessation group

Education

Buddy systems

Hypnotherapy

Self-helf

15

NHS smoking cessation programmes evaluation

They are effective in stopping smokers quit in the short and long term.

Group interventions and buddy systems more effective than one-on-one

For relapse and recovery, the strongest interventions focused on identifying and managing tempting situations.