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Flashcards in Light And Optics Deck (32):
1

Law of reflection:

angle of reflection = angle of incidence

*with respect to Normal

2

Equation to determine index of refraction:

n = c/v

3

What happens to light as a goes from a less dense medium (small index of refraction) to a more dense medium (higher index of refraction)?

wavelength becomes shorter, the wave travels slower

Bends toward Normal

4

What happens to light as a goes from a more dense medium (high index of refraction) to a less dense medium (lower index of refraction)?

wavelength increases, light ray travels faster

Bends away from Normal

5

Energy of a photon equation:

E = hf

6

Equation to determine wavelength:

λ = c/f

7

Snell's Law:

n1sinθ1 = n2sinoθ2

describes angle of refraction in relation to index of refraction. As the angle of refraction increases, the index of refraction decreases.

 

8

What wavelengths of light are most affected by refraction?

shorter wavelengths:

Violet will refract the most and red will refract the least; the frequency never changes, only the wavelength does

9

A converging system is one in which light rays:

converge

10

A diverging system is a system in which light rays:

diverge

11

The two converging systems:

concave mirrors

convex lens

12

The two diverging systems:

convex mirror

concave lens

13

Equation to determine focal length from object distance and image distance:

1/f = 1/o + 1/i

f = focal distance in m

o = object distance in m

i = image distance in m

14

Equation to determine magnification:

m = -i/o

|m| < 1 = reduced

|m| > 1 = magnified

|m| = 0 = same size

-m = inverted

+m = upright

15

|m| < 1 = 

reduced

16

|m| > 1 = 

magnified

17

|m| = 0 = 

same size

18

-m = 

inverted

19

+m = 

upright

20

focal length for spherical mirrors (concave or convex):

f = 1/2r

r = radius of curvature in m 

21

Three rules for converging mirrors and lenses:

Converging = concave mirrors and convex/convex lenses:

1) F < o = IR (inverted / real)

2) F = o = NO (no image)

3) F > o = UV  (upright / virtual)

22

Single rule for diverging mirrors and lenses:

diverging = convex mirrors and concave/convex lenses:

1) UVmin (upright / virtual / minimized)

23

Converging mirror and lenses magnification rules:

1) 2f > o > f = enlarged

2) 2f = o = same size

3) 2f < o = minimized

24

When is f positive and negative?

positive = converging

negative = diverging

25

When is i positive and negative?

positive = real

negative = virtual

26

When is o positive and negative?

positive = same side as light ray

negative = opposite side of light ray

27

When is m positive and negative?

positive = upright

negative = inverted

28

Chromatic aberration cause:

dispersion of light due to refraction; only applicable to lenses

29

Spherical abberation cause:

imperfections in the spherical surface of a lens or mirror

less spherical = more imperfections

30

For a combination lens system, what is the total magnification?

Mtotal = (m1)(m2)

31

Equation to determine the critical angle:

sin(θc) = nr/ni

nr = the refractive medium

ni = the incident medium

32

When light hits a medium at an angle equal to or greater than the critical angle, what occurs?

total internal reflection; the light ray is reflected back into the incident medium