Lightbody Lecture 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lightbody Lecture 14 Deck (45):
1

triacylglycerol

glycerol backbone w/3 FAs attached

2

glycerophospholipid

glycerol w/2 FAs and a PO4 w/alcohol (X) attached (ex: phosphatidylcholine)

3

phospholipid sphingolipid

sphingosine backbone w/one FA attached and a PO4 w/choline attached (ex: sphingomyelin-only one in humans)

4

glycolipid sphingolipid

sphingosine backbone w/one FA and a mono- or oligosaccharide (ex: gangliosides)

5

phosphatidic acid X

H

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phosphatidylethanolamine X

ethanolamine (-CH2-CH2-NH3)

7

phosphatidylcholine X

choline (-CH2-CH2-N(CH3)3

8

phosphatidylserine X

serine (-CH2-CHCOO-NH3)

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phosphatidylglycerol X

glycerol (CH2CHOHCH2OH)

10

phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate X

myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate

11

cardiolipin X

phosphatidylglycerol

12

phosphatidylcholine

prime source of choline; highest [ ] in membs; bile secretion; normal lung fxn dep on constant synth (surfactant); esters of chol in HDL

13

phosphatidylinositol

sig transduc as 2nd msgr; cont arach acid on C2 (provides subst for PG synth)

14

cardiolipin

20% of inner mito memb; imp in fxn of e- trans chain and oxid phos

15

plasmalogens

has ether link at C1; 50% of PTcholine is in this form in <3, nerves, testes, kidneys

16

platelet activating factor

activates platelet agg, anaphylactic shock, acute inflam, chemotaxis; active at 10^12M; TSS; can activate PLA2

17

phospholipase A2

hydrolyzes glycerolphospholipids; in all tissue and panc juice; 4 types; this one hydrolyzes FAs from C2 of glycerol; in tissue, panc, snake and bee venom; activ by GCPRs in PM, then translocates (Ca dep) to nuc memb-->hydrol AA from glycerolPs (PTC, PTI)

18

sphingolipids

have sphingosine backbone (not glycerol); addn of LCFA in amide link-->ceramide; addn of choline to ceramide-->sphingomyelin (myelin sheath)

19

sphingomyelinase

removes choline from sphingomyelin

20

Nieman-Pick A

defect in sphingomyelinase; mental retardation, seizures, eye paralysis, ataxia, failure to grow; cells are foamy b/c accum sphingomyelin in spleen, liver, bone marrow, brain

21

glycosphingolipids (GSL)

both carb and lipid, but not P; in membs, lots in nerve; sugars are antigenic, sourece of ABP blood gp Ags; cerebrosides and globosides are bdg sites for toxins; dramatic /\ in comp when cells transformed; in imm system, cell recognition, cell devel; synth and degrad usu balanced; if not, disease

22

cerebroside (GSL)

ceramide linked to monosaccharide (galactose or glucose)

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globoside (GSL)

ceramide linked to more than one monosaccharide

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ganglioside (GSL)

prod by adding one or more N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA)(sialic acid) to cerebroside or globoside

25

gangliosides (G)

most complex GSL; on cell surface of ganglions of CNS; subscript = #NANA (high is slow); neuronal grth and devel, receptors for cholera toxin

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sphingolipidosis

degradative disease b/c synth and degrad of GSLs not balanced

27

Tay-Sacks

GM2 gangliosidosis; defect in hexosaminidase, so GM2 accum in brain-->red spot on retina, then blind, deaf, paralyzed

28

Gm1 gangliosidosis

accum in many tissues; defective b-galactosidase; symps are neuro deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, skel deforms

29

eicosanoid

from 20-C arachidonic acid; potent; prod in small amts and act locally, not stored, short t1/2; inflam

30

eicosanoid pathway

HA, hormones, thrombin, cytokines, tissue injury, inflam-->receptor-->activate PLA2 in cyto-->eicosanoid AA-->PGs and TXA, LTs, lipoxins; PLA2 also -->EPA-->resolvins

31

PGs

in almost every nuc cell (not RBC); short t1/2 before mod and excreted; low concs (10^-14); cyclopentane ring, unlike TXA (cyclohexane ring); autocrine or paracrine

32

PG synthesis

PGS has 1-cyclooxygenase (COX) and 2-peroxidase (dioxygenases); PGH2 is unstable precurs of other PGs and TXA; fate of PGH2 dep on tissue w/PG synthesis; released thru specific transporters; PG transmemb receptors transduce effect into tgt cell (spec for each PG)

33

thromboxane synthase

in platelets; convert PGH2 to TXA2

34

prostacyclin synthase

in vasc endothelial; convert PGH2 to PGI2

35

COX-1

exp constit in almost all tissues; prod PGs that maint gastric mucosa, kidney fxn, platelet aggreg, vasc homeostasis; general tissue homeostasis; inhib-->bleeding ulcers, loss of kidney fxn

36

COX-2

induc w/inflam; deleterious b/c trigger, partic in, exacerbate inflam; pain, swell, fever, heat, redness; ind by cytokines, horm, GF, endotoxins; inhib good in inflam disease; overexp in breast, colon, prostate cancers; hyphob pocket near AS

37

COX-3

tx from COX-1, but not active in humans; frameshift mutation-->incorp intron 1 into mRNA (altered AA seq)

38

NSAIDS

inhib COX1 and COX2; aspirin, indometh, ibuprofen; inc peptic ulcers and kidney dmg; aspirin acetylates Ser near AS, prev arachidonate bdg; ibuprofen blocks hyphob chan, prevent arachidonate from entering AS

39

Celebrex, Vioxx, Bextra

inhib COX2 w/lesser effect on COX1; inhib inflam w/less dmg to kidneys/GI, but heart attack/stroke

40

acetaminophen

selectively reduces pain and fever, not inflam; inhib COX2; also inhib signal transduc for fever and pain; OD-->liver failure

41

glucocorticoids

PG inhibitors (anti-inflam); induce synth of prot (macrocortine) that inhibits PLA2, but many side effects (impaired glucose tolerance)

42

leukotrienes (LTs)

C-20, 3 dub bonds in conjugation (4 total); no cyclic rings; insert oxygen into specific sites on AA

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LT effects

sim to PGs; major role in atherosclerosis and asthmatic constric of bronchioles; Singulair and Accolate block bdg; med inflam response; recruit monocytes, mast cells, T cells, endothelial, SM cells into inflam resp

44

lipoxins (LX)

anti-inflam; C20, 4 dub bonds, 3 OH gps, no cyclic ring struc; opposite of PG and LT; appearance signals end/resolution of inflam resp; inhib neutrophil chemotaxis, inerleukin synth, TNFa secretion; stim phagocyt of dead cells by macrophage (AA w/enz 15-LO)

45

resolvins

anti-inflam eicosanoids from EPA; C20 w/4 dub bonds (3 conjugated) and 3 OH groups; inhib LT stim of neutrophil mig aX endothel cells; block oxid bursts of macs and inhibs neutrophil adhesion; inc phagocyt of dead neutrophils and decs prod of TNFa (AA w/enz 5-LO); aspirin enhances rxn