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Flashcards in LITERALLY FUCK THIS LECTURE Deck (50):
1

What is blood composed of? (two elements)

1. formed elements: cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and cell fragments (thrombocytes)

2. plasma: protein rich ECM

2

What is hematocrit?

volume of packed RBCs in sample

around 45% of total blood

3

What is the relative volume of RBCs, plasma, and leukocytes/platelets?

RBC: 45%
Plasma: 55%
lueks/plates: 1%

4

What is in the buffy coat?

leukocytes and platelets

5

What is the composition of plasma?

water: 90%
proteins: 7-8%
other solutes: 1-2%

6

What are the plasma proteins?

albumin
globulins
fibrinogens

7

What does albumin do?

most abundant plasma protein

exerts concentration gradient, acts as carrier protein for drugs/hormones/metabolites

8

What do globulins do?

either immunoglobulins (gamma)

or nonimmuneglobulins (alpha, beta) which maintain osmotic pressure and carry stuff

9

What does fibrinogen do?

its soluble, but thru a series of reactions it becomes fibrin (insoluble) and helps form blood clots

10

What is blood usually stained with?

Wright's stain (basophilic and acidophilic)

11

Describe erythrocytes.

anucleate
biconcave discs
7.8 um (histological ruler)
120 day lifespan
released at 2 mil/sec

12

What is the structure of hemoglobin?

two alpha, two beta chains w/ four Fe

each hemoglobin can bind 4 O2

13

What are the two groups of leukocytes?

polymorphonuclear granulocytes
mononuclear agranulocytes

14

What are the polymorphonuclear granulocytes?

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

15

What are the mononuclear agranulocytes?

lymphocytes (B cells, T cells, NK cells)
monocytes

16

What are T cells involved in?

cell mediated immunity (adaptive)

17

What are B cells involved in?

humoral immunity, produce antibodies

(adaptive)

18

What are NK cells involved in?

killing your own fucked up cells

19

What is the function of neutrophils?

first responders to infection, acute inflammation, accumulate as pus

20

What is the function of eosinophils and basophils?

fighting parasites, allergic reactions

21

What are the types of lymphocytes?

T cells, B cells, NK cells

22

What is the function of monocytes?

differentiate into macrophages and eat stuff

23

How to tell the difference between neutrophil and monocyte histologically

monocyte has horseshoe shaped nucleus

neutrophil has several lobed nucleus

24

Where do thrombocytes come from?

megakaryocytic located in bone marrow

form blood clots

25

What are the three phases of embryonic hematopoiesis?

yolk sac stage
liver stage
bone marrow stage

(in chronological order)

26

Where does erythropoiesis take place after birth?

red bone marrow

27

What do all cells associated with blood come from? (also known as monophyletic theory)

hematopoietic stem cell

28

What are the two descendants of the hematopoietic stem cells?

common myeloid progenitor
common lymphoid progenitor

29

What do common lymphoid progenitor cells give rise to?

T cells
B cells
NK cells

30

What "stage" follows the progenitor stage, and what happens in it?

progenitor cells develop into precursor/blast cells

-morphological characteristics start to take place
-lots of mitosis--only producing cells on the way to differentiation (aren't producing more of themselves like HSC can)

31

What sort of relationship is there between mitotic activity and potentiality?

inverse relationship

as mitotic ability goes up, potentiality (how many dif types of cells you can produce) goes down

32

What are the stages of erythropoiesis?

preliminary steps: HSC to CMP to MEP to ErP

1. Proerythroblast
2. Basophilic erythroblast
3. Polychromatic erythroblast
4. Orthchromatic erythroblast (normoblast)
5. Polychromatophilic erythrocyte (reticulocyte)

33

What is the general histological trend seen in erythropoiesis?

basophilic to eosinophilic

lose nucleus

gets smaller

34

What stage of erythropoeisis no longer has a nucleus?

a reticulocyte no longer has a nucleus

(ejected from the orthrochromatic erythroblast)

35

What is the relationship between RNA and hemoglobin as erythropoiesis proceeds?

inverse relationship

RNA decreases as cell matures, hemoglobin increases

this is why the cells go from basophilic to eosinophilic

36

What are the three types of leukopoiesis?

Granulopoeisis (all your 'phil' cells)
Monocytopoiesis (monocytes)
Lymphopoiesis (B,T,NK cells)

37

Which types of leukopoiesis are actually derived from the myeloid stem cell line, not the lymphoid line?

granulopoeisis
monocytopoeisis

38

What processes does the myeloid stem cell line participate in?

erythropoeisis
thrombopoeisis
granulopoeisis
monocytopoeisis

39

What is the basic granulopoeisis pattern?

(in order)

common myeloid progenitor
myeloblast
promyelocyte
myelocyte
metamyelocyte
band cell (idk what this is)
mature cell

40

What is the basic lymphopoeisis pattern?

hematopoietic stem cell
common lymphoid progenitor
(lots of other steps she doesn't go into)
mature cell (T, B, NK cells)

41

What is the basic thrombopoeisis (making platelets) pattern?

hematopoietic stem cell
common myeloid progenitor
megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor
megakaryoctye progenitor
megakaryoblast
megakaryocyte
platelets!

42

Describe a megakaryocyte

very big--50-70 um
multilobed nucleus
scattered azurphilic granules
polyploid cells (64 N)

43

Where are megakaryocytes located?

near sinusoids in bone marrow

44

How are platelets made from megakaryocytes?

small bits of cytoplasm are separated from periphery of megakaryocytes

cytoplasm of megakaryocytes looks "foamy" where this is occurring

45

For all the processes discussed in this lecture (like erythpoeisis and shit), what is the general pattern of cell development?

hematopoeitic stem cell

either common myeloid or lymphoid stem cell

then the PROGENITOR cell of whatever you're trying to make

then the -BLAST cells of whatever cell you're trying to make

them the -CYTE cells of whatever cell you're trying to make

then the mature cell!

46

Where is bone marrow located?

within medullary cavity and spaces of spongy bone

47

What does bone marrow consist of?

sinusoids (sinusoidal capillaries)
hematopoietic cords

48

What's happening in the hematopoietic cords of bone marrow?

developing blood cells, megakaryocytes, macrophages, mast cells, adipocytes

(cords located in clusters near sinusoids)

49

What do adventitial (reticular) cells do?

they send sheetlike extensions into the hematopoietic cords to provide support for developing blood cells and stimulate differentiation of progenitor cells

50

What is the bone marrow cellularity? How do you calculate it?

ratio of hematopoietic cells to adipocytes

BMC = 100 - age plus or minus 10%

ex: mine is 100-22 = 88ish (depressing)

decreaeses with age