Living Anatomy (abdomen) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Living Anatomy (abdomen) Deck (20)
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1
Q

What is the mid inguinal point?

A

The midpoint of a line joining the pubic symphysis and ASIS

2
Q

What is the transtubercular plane?

A

A horizontal plane through the right and left iliac tubercle, level L5

3
Q

What is the subcostal plane?

A

Horizontal plane across the right and left costal margins in the midaxillary line, level L2/3

4
Q

What is the transpyloric plane?

A

Horizontal plane at the level of the tips of the right and left costal cartilages, L1 level

5
Q

How do you divide the abdomen into 9?

A
  • Midclavicular planes
  • Sub-costal plane
  • Transtubercular plane
6
Q

How do you surface mark into 4 quadrants?

A
  • Vertical line through the umbilicus (connecting the xiphisternum and symphysis pubis)
  • Horizontal line through the umbilicus
7
Q

What vertebral level is the xiphisternal joint?

A

T8/9

8
Q

What vertebral level is the midpoint between inferior angle of scapula and top if the iliac crest?

A

T12

9
Q

What vertebral level is the umbilibus?

A

L3/4

10
Q

What vertebral level is the supra-cristal plane?

A

L4

11
Q

What vertebral level are the iliac tubercles?

A

L5

12
Q

What vertebral level are the ASIS and PSIS?

A

S2

13
Q

What vertebral level is the midpoint of the sacroiliac joint?

A

S2

14
Q

Describe the outline of the liver

A
  • Point at right 5th rib MCL
  • Lower end of sternum
  • Left 5th ICS at MCL
  • Costal margin at right midaxillary line
15
Q

Describe how to surface mark the spleen

A
  • Ribs 9, 10 and 11

- From midaxillary line to the lateral border of the erector spinae muscles

16
Q

List the stages taken when examining the abdomen

A
  • Inspection
  • Auscultation
  • Light palpation
  • Deep palpation
  • Percussion
17
Q

How is the kidney surface landmarked?

A
  • Draw the transpyloric plane (L1 vertebral level)
  • Hilum is 4-5cm from the posterior median line
  • Inferior pole is 3-4cm above the iliac crests
  • Superior pole is covered posteriorly by the 12th ribs
  • Kidneys are 9-12cm long and 5-7cm broad
  • Ureters extend vertically from the hila to the iliac fossae
18
Q

Why is the transpyloric plane important?

A
  • Behind it lies the pyloris of the stomach, the 1st part of the duodenum, 1st lumbar vertebra and the origin of the superior mesenteric artery
  • Also at the level of the hilum of each kidney
  • The level where the rectus abdominis muscle meets the costal margin
19
Q

Describe the process of palpation of the kidneys

A
  • Bimanual palpation (both hands are used)
  • Left hand underneath, right hand used to palpate the upper abdominal wall
  • Move the right and left hands up and down and ask the patient to breathe in and out to try and catch the kidney
20
Q

Where is inflammation of the kidney commonly felt?

A
  • As backache
  • If there is a kidney stone, pain can occur due to the ureter trying to push the kidney stone through the narrow constrictions. This pain is called renal colic