Flashcards in Locality, Control, And Labelling Theory and Marxism Deck (32):
Who says that anxiety about all types of crime is less in rural areas, also in rural areas there is a higher risk of burglary among high income household than low which is a reversal of the pattern in Urban areas where low income houses are at more risk
Note that rural areas are more close knit and have higher levels of social interaction so are more likely to know others through community history, while in urban areas there is a lack of social interaction
Marshall and Johnson
Who did the Chicago study of zones of transition that links to locality
Shaw and McKay
What did Felson and Clarke say?
That life is more impersonal in large cities so people less likely to know others in the community and be able to act as capable guardians watching out for eachother, deterring crime.
What does Brantington say?
Argues no crime can occur without physical opportunities that urban areas have more of - crime attracting targets like businesses and warehouses
What is control theory and who came up with it?
Hirschi, who argued social order based on shared values and socialisation which integrates people into society.
All humans suffer weaknesses that tempt into crime but social bonds encourage self-control, tie them to conformity and stop them commuting crime. If social bonds weakened or broken they will turn to crime.
People attached to others so sensitive to their needs and wishes,
Share moral beliefs,
Are committed to conventional activities like work and education
And are kept busy by sports, community and religious groups so have no opportunity for crime.
What did Gottfredson and Hirschi add to control theory?
That inadequate self-control arising from weakened social bonds aren't enough to explain crime, opportunities to offend must be present to.
Cohen argues against control theory that...
It doesn't recognise criminals can have tight social bonds when boys actually turn to eachother forming delinquent subcultures
Who says that police officer's pre-existing conceptions of what constitutes troubles influenced their response to behaviour.
Who argues that officers helps stereotypes of the typical delinquent which led them to concentrate on certain types which resulted in law enforcement showing class bias, working class people fitted the type which led to more patrol on the areas and more arrests confirming the stereotype. Label also meant that middle class youth were charged less often as didn't fit stereotype so behaviour interpreted as temporary lapses and formal charges weren't brought.
What survey and other record shows rural areas as compared to urban have lower rates of all crime and have half the proportion of people who worry about being a victim?
Crime survey for England and Wales and police recorded crime
Who defined primary deviance and secondary deviance and what are they?
primary deviance - not publicly labelled, few consequences for offender for example speeding, once offended if publicly exposed secondary deviance can occur - may occur due to societal reaction - publicly labelled as criminal which becomes their master status, overriding all others
Who says that the label has consequences for the offenders self concept as other characteristics are ignored, they are seen as outsiders which can lead to self fulfilling prophecy and further deviance by blocking opportunities so individual identifies with deviant group and turns to deviant career.
Societal reaction and application of labels produce more deviance than they prevent
Who shows Becker's ideas through study of hippies in Notting hill whose primary deviance of marihuana use began to be labelled and they were targeted by police so increasingly saw themselves as outsiders developing a deviant subculture and the drug became a central activity inviting further police attention and creating a self fulfilling prophecy
How do Downes and Rock criticise labelling theory? And what does Becker recognise in response to the criticism?
They argue we cannot predict whether someone who has been labelled will follow a deviant career because they are always free not to deviate further.
Becker recognises himself that individuals can choose to avoid a deviant career by seeking to rehabilitate themselves
Who defines disintegrative shaming and reintegrative shaming and what are these?
Disintegrative shaming - has negative effects as it labels and excludes the offender while reintegrative shaming labels the act not the actor which avoids stigmatisation and encourages and forgiveness and acceptance back into society.
He notes crime rates lower in societies where reintegrative shaming is the dominant way of dealing with offenders.
What does 'capitalist society is criminogenic' mean?
Crime stems from a society that emphasises economic self-interest and greed. Poverty sometimes means that crime is the only way to survive and the only way to consume goods encouraged by advertising.
Alienation and frustration at social exclusion can cause non-utilitarian crime
Capitalism is a system of ruthless competition among capitalism the need to win and greed encourages white collar and corporate crime, it is a ....... system
dog eat dog system
Who said 'crimes of the powerful'?
What did Chambliss say about laws?
That they are instruments of the ruling class which reflect their values and beliefs, those of higher classes are less likely to be prosecuted and if they are, treated more leniently.
Who said that what is defined as a serious crime is socially constructed to fit with their ideology, property crime and violence is seen as more serious is capitalist society than the major harm caused by corporations
Who said that the more likely a crime committed by higher class people the less likely it is treated as an offence, there is disproportionate prosecutions for street crime and the criminal justice system takes a more forgiving view on crimes of the powerful
Who said laws that appear to benefit the working class perform a manipulative function giving capitalism a caring face creating false consciousness amongst workers
Carson did a study of 200 firms and found
All had broken health and safety laws at least once but only 1.5 of these cases resulted in persecution
Not all capitalist societies have high crime rates what is Japan's and USA's homicide rate and how do Marxists respond to this criticism?
Japan's homicide rate is 1 per every 100,000 whole the USA's is 5.6 per every 100,000.
Marxists point out that societies with little welfare provision have more crime
Left realists criticise that...
Marxists focus largely on crimes of the powerful so ignore intra-class crimes
Who criticises wrote the new criminology and argued that traditional Marxism is too deterministic and workers aren't driven to commit crime out of economic necessity but political actions deliberately striving to change society
Taylor, Walton and Young
Who argued that black crime in the 1970's was a form of resistance to ruling class oppression in the form of police racism
Who studied black crime in 1970's where it was used to reassert ruling class hegemony at a time where it was under threat from economic and political crisis. - diverted attention onto black mugging, scapegoating young black people, ruling class owned media stirred up public creating moral panic and exaggerating mugging when there was no real increase. Public concerns helped to justify more aggressive, repressive polices and by presenting black youth as a threat the working class were divided on racial groups so opposition to capitalism was weakening. He did however accept what?
He did accept that capitalism marginalised black youth driving some into crime
How do Downes and a Rock criticise Hall?
Criticise him for being inconsistent in claiming black crime wasn't rising and that it was
Who argued that critical criminology was too general to explain crime and too idealistic to be useful in tackling it?
Who of the writers of new criminology argued that the book laid some foundations for later radical approaches seeking a more just society such as left realism and feminism?
Walton and Young