London Flashcards Preview

Geography- Urban Environments > London > Flashcards

Flashcards in London Deck (68):
1

What was the population of Greater London in 2015?
What's the population expected to reach by 2050?

8.6 million
11 million by 2050

2

What land area does the city over?
What type of land is this?

1,750 km2
Lowland area as much of the city is built on the floodplains of the River Thames

3

Why is it hard to characterise London's buildings by architectural style?

Its' rich history means there are a range of buildings

4

What evidence is there of postmodernism in London?

Water Pumping Station, Isle of Dogs

5

What percentage of the UK's GDP does London make up?

17%

6

Why is London receiving lots of foreign investment?

As it has an expanding financial centre, and a growing reputation as a technological hub
It has top rankings for multimedia and software development

7

How much cargo does the Port of London handle each year?

More than 48 million tonnes
Shows it is an important exchange of goods

8

How has London's economy changed?

19th and early 20th century- manufacturing industries were dominant
Early 20th century onwards- service industries have become dominant

9

Facts about the banks and financial institutions of London

Trade more US dollars than New York
Trade more Euros than all other European cities combined

10

What percentage of global transactions does the London Stock Exchange account for?

32%

11

How many are employed in the service sector in London?
What percentage of this is in the financial sector?

3.2 million people
42% financial

12

How many does the manufacturing and construction industry employ?

0.5 million

13

How much does tourism contribute to London's economy each year?

£36 billion

14

What is the average house price in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea?

£2 million (can be 10 times that)

15

What's the average salary in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea?
What's the median salary?

Average- £123,000
Median- £32,700
Highlights one of the widest earning gaps in the country

16

Which industry are 64% of low paid jobs in?
Who takes these jobs generally?

Hospitality
Foreign workers who don't mind a lower wage

17

What percentage of London employees are at risk of insecure employment?
Who is particularly at risk?

10%, many of these being on zero hours contracts
Mainly the younger workers of black ethnic minority backgrounds

18

What percentage of workers are paid below the London Living Wage?
What does this mean for those workers?

20%
Unlikely to fund the high living costs of London- reduced standard of living- rely on the state

19

What percentage of low-paid jobs are held by women?

55%

20

Which ethnicity have the lowest paid jobs in London?

White British at 34% of the low paid
(Pakistani and Bangladeshi employees only make us 6% of the low paid workforce)

21

How many were unemployed in 2016?

280,000
Lowest level since the start of the recession

22

What percentage of London's households live in the private rented sector?

27%

23

What percentage of earnings were spent on rents in London in 2015/16?
What was this in the rest of England?

72%
29% for the rest of England

24

Why is it difficult for first time buyers to buy in London?

Lack of affordable housing

25

How many slept rough in 2016/17?

8,100
Shouldn't be happening in HIC city
(Homeless are 13 times more likely to be a victim of violent crime)

26

How many Royal Parks are there?
Example?

8
Hyde Park

27

Benefits of parks in London?

Reduce stress levels
Meeting place
Reduce air pollution
Outside space for those without a garden

28

London pupils outperform the rest of England across _______ as do pupils with __________
Why does London outperform?

Ethnic groups
Special educational needs
The schools have the provisions to helps all students

29

What percentage of disadvantaged students from Inner London go on to attend HE institutions?

59%

30

How many 11 year olds were obese in London in 2015/16?
The rest of England?

23%
20%
Poor families can only afford cheap food

31

Why is the income of many poor London families under threat in the future?

Welfare reforms mean their benefits could be significantly reduced

32

More than ___ languages are spoken in London

300

33

Why has London got a long history of immigration?

It has a port

34

In 2015, what percentage of London's population were of black or ethnic minority?
What's this meant to reach by 2038?

44%
50%

35

How do tourists perceive London?

Positively- see all the iconic sites i.e. Big Ben

36

How do viewers of Made in Chelsea perceive London?

As a city of high disposable income, where the young have leisurely lives

37

How do the immigrants moving to London perceive it?

A place of opportunity

38

How do those living below the poverty line perceive it?

Expensive, bias towards the wealthy
Authorities are not doing enough to help their situation

39

How do TNC's perceive London?

A good base for their company- highly respected with a highly skilled workforce

40

When was the Clean Air Act introduced in London?

1956, to prevent the smog the city had experienced

41

How have levels of carbon dioxide been reduced in transport?

Routemaster buses- hybrids
Taxi age limits
1,400 charge points installed for e cars
Low emission zones

42

Which gas stills breaches EU limits?

Nitrogen oxide
Links to early deaths- 8.3% in Chelsea and Westminster

43

What percentage of CO2 is from transport?
Diesel cars?
Gas for central heating?

64%
11% (carcinogenic and building erosion)
16% (cleaner than Mumbai's coal)

44

What is the latest charge being introduced for London motorists?

T-Charge
£10 a day in Central London on old cars

45

How many motorists could be liable to pay the T-Charge each month?

34,000

46

What is it hoped the T-Charge will reduce?

Nitrogen oxide levels
In reality it will only be by 2%

47

Why is the T-Charge worsening economic inequality?

The poorer workers can't afford a new car
Will now have to drive to the outskirts of the city and commute in

48

How much warmer is the centre of London than the surrounding rural areas?
What impacts does this have?

10oc
Increases energy consumption and water consumption
Dangerous for vulnerable people

49

Cross Rail will increase London's rail capacity by ___%

10%

50

How is it hoped Cross Rail will reduce fossil fuel usage?

People will use it over cars- less air pollution

51

Boris bikes are hoped to increase cycling in London by ___% by 2025
Why is this scheme good?
Problem?

400%
Bikes are relatively cheap to install
Anyone can use them- tourists and residents alike
Worries about cyclist safety

52

There are targets to increase green cover in London by ___% by 2030, as vegetation helps...

5%
Helps remove pollutants from the air

53

Why are brownfield sites popular development locations?

Key infrastructure is already in place
Reduces dereliction
Provides homes in central areas where the demand is

54

Example of a redevelopment project?
How is it trying to reduce pollution?

Battersea Power Station, £9 billion
Green roofs to reduce water and air pollution

55

What does London's sewerage system collect apart from sewage?

Rainwater run-off from roads, roofs and pavements

56

What happens to London's sewerage system during heavy periods of rain?

It discharges raw sewage directly into the Thames- killing large quantities of fish and threatens public health
55 million tonnes of raw sewage washed into the river in 2015

57

Why do surface water sewers pollute rivers?

They pick up contaminants when draining the urban landscape

58

What does Thames water state half of all sewer blockages are caused by?

Fat and cooking oil
These fat bergs result in flooding

59

What impact has the Water Resources Act of 1991 had?

Improved water quality in estuaries and coastal waters
Set up water protection zones
Convicted individuals and companies of water pollution offences

60

How big will the completed Thames Tideway Tunnel be?

25km long and up to 65m deep

61

Aims of the Thames Tideway Tunnel?

Create more than 4,000 sustainable jobs
Support the development of river transport skills through the Thames Skills Academy
Undertake research on the aquatic ecology of the Thames
Reduce lorry movements- less air pollution

62

Which primary school has installed SuDS worth £18,000?
Why did they install a green roof?

Hollickwood Primary School
To increase the volume of rainwater being intercepted- reducing air pollution

63

What are the results of the swales installed at Hollickwood PS?
Which company is monitoring them?

Improved the water quality
Filtered out the pollutants from air and water
Thames Water

64

How much of London is on a flood plain?
Name some of the infrastructure at risk

15%
10 hospitals, 75 underground stations

65

By how much are water levels in the Thames Estuary likely to rise in the next century due to thermal expansion and ice melt?

20-90cm

66

How much of money earmarked for new flood defences in England will be spent on London?

£1.8 billion
50% of England's budget

67

Why are many of London's strategies considered sustainable?

They involve the local community
They are constantly monitored and tweaked
Focus on education

68

There are proposals to make London the first...

National Park City