Flashcards in Mumbai Deck (80):
Where is Mumbai?
West Coast of India
What did the British Empire ship from Mumbai to England for manufacturing?
When did Mumbai begin to develop rapidly?
Following India's independence from the British in 1947
How much of India's foreign trade did Mumbai account for in 2015?
Mumbai's population of ______ makes it India's largest city
What's the population set to rise to by 2020?
Giving it the highest population density of any city- strain on infrastructure
Which national park is located in Mumbai? What regularly happens as a result?
Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Animals escape into the city- leopard attacks are frequent
What is the climate like?
Extreme variation in rainfall throughout the year
Average min temp: 23.5 in January
Average max temp: 29.5 July
What 3 industries is Mumbai considered the centre of in India?
Entertainment (i.e. Bollywood)
What percentage of India's exports leave through Mumbai's port?
More than 50%
Example of a TNC founded and based in Mumbai?
Why do TNC's often locate in Mumbai?
Workers are educated and skilled, but are paid less than in HIC's
There are a huge number of workers in the ____ sector
What was the percentage increase in the number of people working in trade, finance, and services between 1980 and 1990?
(52% to 64%)
What was the percentage decrease in manufacturing between 1980 and 1990? Why has this decrease occurred?
(36% to 29%)
As manufacturing has moved to other NEE's where labour is cheaper
Where are the wealthy parts of Mumbai?
South (banking and financial centre)
i.e. Nairman Point and Chowpatty Beach
North, around Bollywood
Where is there extreme poverty?
Slums of Dharavi
What type of housing is in the wealthy parts?
High quality apartments (due to land pressure)
Air conditioning and pools
Why is it argued that government policies are depriving the poor of their fundamental rights?
Schemes are aimed at wealthy city workers
i.e. Railway investment only benefits the wealthy and middle class
Mumbai's population has nearly doubled since ____
Why has Mumbai's population increased so much?
Due to an influx of migrants from other parts of India seeking employment opportunity
What percentage of the population lives in slums?
How many languages does Mumbai's population speak?
16 major languages
Why has Mumbai produced many English speaking IT and engineering graduates?
What has this led to?
The government has invested in university education
Many English companies have invested- increasing wealth
What's the total literacy rate of Mumbai?
What is the difference between the literacy rate for males and females?
What does this highlight?
Highlighting the gender divide, the gap is slowly closing as women are being empowered
What type of business boomed in the early 2000's in Mumbai?
What was Dharavi up until the late 19th Century? How was it filled in?
A mangrove swamp
Filled in using coconut leaves, rotten leaves and human waste
How much do the thousands of micro-industries in Dharavi earn annually?
Examples of the industries present?
Garment makers, tanners and potters
Some residents of Dharavi have turned to the unregulated and unsafe businesses of ________
Rag picking and scouring rubbish heaps to earn a living
Years of government neglect in Dharavi have resulted in _____
Inadequate hygiene standards- each toilet is shared by over 1,000 residents
Poor housing quality
Lack of basic infrastructure
What will the government led Dharavi Redevelopment Project give residents who have lived in the slum since 2000?
A 300 square foot house for free
How many doctors are there for every 100,000 people?
How many people is Mumbai's existing health care system designed to treat?
Up to 7 million people
Why do many go without medical help?
They can't afford it, and there are long delays for the free (or significantly discounted healthcare on offer for the poor)
Why is it difficult to compare pollution statistics?
Due to different methods of recording the data
What does some of the pollution data suggest about Mumbai?
It is among the most polluted cities in the world
What percentage of air pollution is caused by waste burning? Why is this bad for the population?
Results in toxic chemicals being released- dangerous for residents and causes respiratory illness
High particulate levels can increase the risk of cancer
What percentage of air pollution is caused by transport?
Why do cars emit such high levels of pollution?
There is insufficient control over vehicle emission levels
What percentage of air pollution is generated through domestic cooking and heating? Why is this?
Many families are reliant on coal fires
What percentage of air pollution is from diesel generators?
Companies based in Mumbai are causing lots of air pollution because they are taking advantage of _____
Relaxed planning laws
Which rubbish incineration plant causes most of the industrial air pollution?
How many times over the safe air pollution is this during its nightly burning?
Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation
13 times greater than the safe limit
How many vehicles are driven daily on Mumbai's roads?
Why are a lot of cars in poor condition?
Many are second hand, and there are no MOTs to check their condition
How have car owners been encouraged to reduce air pollution?
Buy hybrid cars
Taxes have been increased for car owners
Give an example of public transport improvement
Mumbai's first monorail opened in 2012
Each of the 4 coaches has the capacity for 500
Aims to ease congestion and traffic pollution in central Mumbai
Rubber tyres also reduce noise pollution
What was the slogan used at Mumbai's first cyclothon in 2010?
How many attended?
What are the concerns with cycling in Mumbai?
'Burn fat, not fuel'
Over 7,000 participants
Concerns over cyclist safety as there are a lack of road regulations
What industrial legislation has been introduced to reduce air pollution?
Chimneys have to be over a certain height, so smoke particles are dispersed more easily by the wind
Chimneys need filters to remove poisonous particulates
Where do industries with large amounts of toxic waste need to be located?
Away from densely populated urban areas to prevent industrial accidents
What are the benefits of the green roof scheme?
They filter pollutants out of the air and run off water- reduces respiratory illness
Reduce the heat island effect
Help cool houses = less air conditioning = less electricity needed
Where was the gas leak in 2010 causing 76 to be emitted to hospital?
Sewri Industrial Park
How many of India's rivers were found to be polluted in 2010?
Why was this?
Sewage flows in open drains, having serious impacts on groundwater quality and human health
What are the impacts on human health from water pollution?
Diseases like cholera and diarrhoea are widespread
Water pollution causes poor nutrition and the underdevelopment of children
What strategies were implemented in 2010 to clear up the River Mithi?
Unemployed people hired to clean up the river
Authorities set up a proper rubbish collection system
Authorities began to close all unauthorised waste dumping
What longer term strategies are being implemented on the River Mithi to reduce water pollution?
Sewers are being installed on both banks of the river, with sewage treatment plants constructed at various locations
Dredge the entire length of the river to improve its carrying capacity
Provide public toilets at regular intervals so less human waste enters the river
Why is there a large amount of dereliction in Mumbai?
Due to the inequality
Little is being done to tackle the dereliction
Why do the urban poor live in derelict buildings?
As they provide shelter in bad weather
When are the monsoon rains in Mumbai?
Why do they have such a big impact on the city?
Between June and September
The city is built on low lying land
When did Mumbai receive 944mm of rainfall (the average amount for the entire season)?
What worsened the flooding this caused?
26th July 2005
There were high tides
What were the impacts of the 2005 floods?
Over 400 people died
Over 10,000 homes were destroyed
City suffered losses of £1.2 billion
Public transport was completely shut down
Water supplies, electricity and communication networks were completely shut down
Why did urban growth worsen the 2005 floods?
Rapid and uncontrolled development had replaced most public parks, gardens, and swamps- meaning the water could not infiltrate into the ground
Impermeable surfaces increased the amount of surface run off
What is the Greater Mumbai Disaster Management Action Plan aiming to do for the city?
Identified the risks and vulnerabilities the city would face in the future (i.e. flooding and earthquakes)
Co-ordinate relief and rescue efforts
Widened and deepened the Mithi to reduce flood risks
When was the Greater Mumbai Disaster Management Action Plan implemented?
After the 2005 floods
Why do many environmentalists think that despite the efforts by the Greater Mumbai Disaster Management Action Plan Mumbai is still at a large risk of flooding?
Building is happening on floodplains
Mangrove forests are being removed
Storm drains and waterways are being clogged by plastic rubbish
Why has the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicted that Mumbai will be the second most at risk city in the world?
Rainfall, heat, humidity increases and sea level rise will have severe impacts on the city
What percentage of Mumbai will be underwater in the next 100 years if sea levels continue to rise at the same level? Impacts?
Destroy essential infrastructure
Millions of homes submerged by coastal flooding
Why are many of the schemes Mumbai has adopted seen as unsustainable?
They don't involve the local community- so their needs aren't met
Strategies like dredging have many negative impacts
Why is vermiculture considered sustainable?
Worms breaking down waste at community vermiculture units has reduced the amount of waste going to land fill by 25%
Why is Advanced Locality Management considered sustainable?
Involves rag pickers collecting waste from people's houses- reduces the amount going to landfill
Reduces the number of people scavenging on landfill sites- reducing health risks
Why is Ecoreco considered sustainable?
Offers payment for e-waste
Helps electronics to be recycled- reduces the need for extraction
Reduces health risks from slum dwellers breaking down the electronics in their homes, where they expose themselves and their families to lead levels 10 times greater than safe limits
Why is the green roof scheme considered sustainable?
City lacks open space (0.03 acres per 1,000 people compared to 12 in London)- hard to reverse
Greens roofs help incorporate vegetation, and reduce air pollution
Name some of the religious groups present in Mumbai
What does Mumbai's diverse population have problems with?
In 1989, what percentage of households were migrants?
What perception of place does Slumdog Millionaire give of Mumbai for outsiders?
Highlights poverty in the slums
Shows wealth- cars and apartments
Shows people working in call centres
Films are not always realistic- giving a false perception of place
How do immigrants heading for Mumbai perceive it?
A place of opportunity
Somewhere they can work and have a good quality of life
How can people perceive Mumbai in a negative way?
News reports i.e. 2008 terrorist attack
How could slum dwellers perceive Mumbai?
Feel unwanted by city officials as they want the land redeveloped
Slums has a strong community spirit- place of safety
How could the wealthy residents of Mumbai perceive it?
A place of wealth and work
Many apartments overlook the slums- aesthetically unattractive