Long Answer Question 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Long Answer Question 1 Deck (12)
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1
Q

The respiratory system and circulatory system work together to maintain homeostasis in the 3 following processes

A
  • external respiration
  • transportation of gasses to and from lungs
  • internal respiration
2
Q

External respiration

  • definition
  • structures involved (6)
  • location it occurs and the conditions
A
  • External respiration is the process where gasses are exchanged (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the air and the blood.
  • This process involves the lungs, alveoli, pulmonary capillaries, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, and plasma, structures from both the respiratory system and circulatory system.
  • External respiration occurs in the lungs, where the temperature is low and the pH is high (basic).
3
Q

External respiration

- what occurs

A
  • Due to these conditions (stated in last flashcard), hemoglobin loses its affinity for carbon dioxide and hydrogen and gains an affinity for oxygen. Most of the CO2 is carried in the plasma as bicarbonate ions. Bicarbonate ions combine with hydrogen to form carbonic acid. Carbonic anhydrase speeds up the breakdown of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide so the carbon dioxide may move out of the plasma. Carbon dioxide diffuses out of plasma and then into the lungs because the carbon dioxide pressure in the pulmonary capillaries is larger than the atmospheric air’s carbon dioxide pressure in the lungs. Oxygen now enters the blood becauses the systemic capillaries have a lower oxygen pressure than the alveolar air. Hemoglobin takes up this oxygen and forms oxyhemoglobin.
4
Q

External respiration

- write out the three reactions that occur

A
  • HHb –> Hb + H^+
  • H^+ + HCO3^- –> H2CO3 –(carbonic anhydrase)–> H2O + CO2
  • Hb + O2 –> HbO2
5
Q

Transport of gases to and from lungs

- explain it, bro

A

Blood vessels from the circulatory system carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood away from the lungs. Veins and venules carry blood to the heart where they are then sent to the lungs to be reoxygenated. Carbon dioxide and oxygen, both in their gas forms, exit and enter the blood respectively. Arterioles and arteries carry blood away from the lungs and then to the body to serve the tissues. Carbon dioxide and oxygen, both in their gas forms, enter and exit the blood, respectively.

6
Q

Internal respiration

  • definition
  • structures involved (6)
  • location it occurs and the conditions
A
  • Internal respiration is a process where gases are exchanged between blood and tissue fluid.
  • This process involves the tissues, systemic capillaries, systemic arteries, systemic veins, plasma, and red blood cells coming from the lungs.
  • Internal respiration occurs in the tissues where the temperature is high and the pH is more acidic than in the lungs.
7
Q

Internal respiration

  • what occurs
  • write out the chemical reaction that occurs
A

Due to these conditions, hemoglobin loses its affinity for oxygen. The oxygen pressure in the tissues is lower than in the blood so oxygen can now diffuse into the tissues. Hemoglobin gains an affinity for carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions. Carbon dioxide diffuses into the systemic capillaries because the pressure in the blood is lower than in the tissues. 10% of the carbon dioxide that diffuses out of tissues and into the blood forms carbaminohemoglobin. The rest form carbonic acid with water and the help of carbonic anhydrase. It then dissociates into hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions. Hemoglobin picks up the excess hydrogen ions to form reduced hemoglobin.
- H2O + CO2 –(carbonic anhydrase)–> H2CO3 –> H^+ + HCO3^-

8
Q

Enzymes(1) and hormones(2)

- state and explain their roles

A
  • Carbonic anhydrase is present within the circulatory system and involved in internal and external respiration. It helps to maintain blood pH because it speeds the breakdown of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide.
  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine are hormones released by the adrenal medulla. This stimulates the heart causing it to beat faster.
9
Q

Why is water important for the respiratory system

2 points

A
  • The alveolar tissue in your lungs is delicate so dry air is very irritating for this tissue. Air must be humidified before reaching our lungs. Water moistens the air we breathe.
  • Water is involved in the chemical reactions from internal and external respiration. H2O+CO2 H2CO3
10
Q

Why is water important for the circulatory system

2 points

A
  • Water is important to our blood composition. Our plasma is made up of roughly 90% water. Water helps maintain blood volume.
  • Water also helps transport molecules.
11
Q

Supplementary drawing: draw an alveolus with the pulmonary arterioles and venules on it.

A

refer to page 350 in your textbook for the image

12
Q

list all of the subtopics(6) to elaborate on for question 1 of the long answer. you may look at the long answer handout for hints!

A
  • external respiration (definition, structures involved, location, conditions, what occurs, chemical reactions)
  • transport of gasses to and from lungs
  • internal respiration (definition, structures involved, location, conditions, what occurs, chemical reactions)
  • enzymes and hormones
  • why water is important for each system
  • supplementary drawing: alveolus