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Flashcards in Lower Abdomen 2 Deck (23)
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What are the abdominal organs?

Transverse Colon
Ascending Colon
Descending Colon
Sigmoid Colon
Anal Canal


What is the entrance to the stomach from the esophagus?

Cardiac orifice


What is the exits from the stomach to the duodenum?

Pyloric sphincter


What is the stomach lined with?

Rugae - temporary folds within the body of the stomach


What are the parts of the small intestine?

1) Duodenum - fixed & relatively immobile
2) Jejunum & ileum
- tethered, but very mobile
-combined length of 3 segments ~20 ft.
3) Plicae Circularis
-permanent folds within intestine
-become more diffuse distally
-Ileum empties into cecum at ileocecal junction


What are the sections of the Duodeunum?

Superior part, descending part, inferior part, ascending part


What is Meckel's (ileal) diverticulum and where is it?

It's a remnant of the embryonic yolk stalk, and it's in the ileum

It appears as a finger like pouch, it's located 1 m proximal to ileocecal valve, may become inflamed & mimic appendicitis


What is another name for the colon?

Large intestine


What are the five segment of the colon?

Cecum, Asc, Trans, Desc, Sigmoid


What are the 2 flexures of the colon?

The Right Colic (Hepatic) flexure and the Left Colic (Splenic) flexure


Where does the colon terminate?

into the rectum


What does the veriform appendix open into? Where is it?

the cecum, inferior to the ileocecal orifice

commonly retrocecal but varies considerably


What is the mesoappendix?

a swatch of triangular mesentery between the ileum and appendix


What are the symptoms of appendicitis?

-Vague pain begins in the periumbilical region (it's afferent pain referred to T10 level)
-Severe pain later from R. lower quadrant (from irritation of peritoneum of posterior abdominal wall)
-Pain is most severe over spinoumbilical point between the ASIS & umbilicus


The colon frames the ____

small intestines


What are the specializations of the colon?

1) Teniae coli - 2 smooth m. bands paralleling length of colon
2) Haustra coli - outpouchings produced by teenier coli
3) Epiploic appendages - fat tags found along the colon


What is the arterial supply of the upper abdomen?

Celiac trunk - 1st major br. of abdominal aorta - it supplies liver gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, pancreas & spleen - it has 3 main branches:
1) Common hepatic
2) L. gastic
3) Splenic aa.


What is the arterial supply of lower abdomen?

1) Superior Mesenteric A. - 2nd major branch of abdominal aorta - ~1 cm inferior of celiac - it sends 15-18 intestinal aa. to small intestine - supplies up to proximal 2/3 of transverse colon via ileocolic, R. colic & middle colic

2) Inferior mesenteric A. - 3rd major branch of abdominal aorta - ~5 cm superior to aortic bifurcation - supplies colon from distal 1/3 of transverse colon via L. colic, sigmoid (4) & superior rectal

*Variations of SMA & IMA branching exist.

*Anastomoses between colic branch for collateral circulation, these form a consistent vascular arc around the colon via marginal a. of Drummond


What are the Pancreatic Arteries?

Gastroduodenal a. gives off Superior
pancreaticoduodenal aa.
• SMA gives off Inferior pancreaticoduodenal aa.
(they anastomose and supply head of pancreas & duodenum)
• Splenic a. supplies rest of pancreas with additional branches


What are the renal arteries?

ateral branches of abdominal aorta (lateral to SMA)
• Enter hilum of each kidney to supply it
• sends off brs. to adrenal glands and ureters
• other adrenal branches from inferior phrenic aa & aorta


What are the gonadal arteries?

Gonadal Aa.
• lateral branches of abdominal aorta (inf. to renal aa.)
• Ovarian aa (♀)
– crosses over ureters &
iliac vessels
– descends to pelvis to supply ovaries
• Testicular aa. (♂)
– crosses over ureters &
enters inguinal canal
– descends into scrotum to supply testes


What is the venous drainage of the abdomen?

1) Inferior Vena Cava
– largest vein in body
– begins at ~L5 level
» at union of common iliac vv.
– returns poorly oxygenated blood from LL, most of the back, abdominal wall, & abdominopelvic viscera
– to the RA of heart
– Blood from viscera
» via Portal venous system

2) Portal Vein
– Formed by union of splenic and superior mesenteric vv. (L2)
– Venous return from:
» Spleen
» Pancreas
» Gallbladder
» Abdominal gastrointestinal tract
– Returns nutrient rich, poorly oxygenated blood to the liver
– Then via IVC to the RA of heart


What are Portal-Caval Anastomoses?

4 anastomoses: portal & caval vv
– gastric vv & esophageal vv
– paraumbilical vv & epigastric vv
– superior rectal vv & middle/ inferior rectal vv
– colic vv & retroperitoneal vv

*Portal venous system has no valves
• reversal of blood flow into caval vv is possible
-portal hyper tension restricts blood flow
– causes caval vv to become engorged
– may become dilated & varicose