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Flashcards in Lower G.I. 5 Deck (21):

55-year-old man presents with constipation, rectal bleeding, fatigue. Find constricting lesion 4 cm from anal verge. Biopsy shows adenocarcinoma. What lymph nodes could be invaded?

Internal iliac, sacral, inferior mesenteric, inguinal


55-year-old man presents with constipation, rectal bleeding, fatigue. Find constricting lesion 4 cm from anal verge. Biopsy shows adenocarcinoma. Further preoperative evaluation? Appropriate procedure? Complications?

1. Colonoscopy for visualization
2. Transrectal ultrasound to determine rectal wall invasion
3. CT or MRI to determine spread to adjacent structures
5. CXR and CEA

Abdominoperineal resection (excision of entire rectum with permanent colostomy)

Impotence (50%), impaired bladder function, colostomy complications


Poor prognostic factors for rectal adenocarcinoma?

#Poor histologic differentiation
#elevated CEA
#bowel perforation


Regarding rectal cancer – distance from anal verge affects operative management how?

It's more than 5 cm proximal to anal verge, possible to remove

If closer, abdominoperineal resection is necessary (removal results in incontinence) because margins include anal sphincter

If distal, need 2 cm margins for well/moderately differentiated lesions; 5 cm margins for poorly differentiated/anaplastic/signet cell carcinomas


When to use preoperative radiation for rectal cancer?

If lesions or large/bulky or extend outside bowel wall


How does abdominoperineal resection differ in women?

Remove posterior wall of the vagina


Patient undergoes curative resection with abdominoperineal resection. Later developed .5 cm lesion in perineum. Management?

1. Biopsy
2. If Biopsy shows carcinoma, repeat CT scan, CEA, colonoscopy
3. Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery


Patient with previous colon cancer resection presents with elevated CEA. Suspect metastasis. Candidate for surgical resection if?

1. No extrahepatic Mets
2. No local recurrence
3. Lesion in surgically resectable location
4. Acceptable Anastasia risk from cardiopulmonary standpoint


Some Locations of unresectable hepatic lesions?

1. Multiple lesions in multiple lobes
2. Lesions with vascular structures (hepatic, portal veins)
3. Lesions involving diaphragm
4. Lesions in cirrhotic liver (limited hepatic reserve)


Surgical Management of patients with unresectable liver metastases?

1. Cryotherapy
2. Injection of absolute ethanol
3. Radiofrequency ablation
4. Chemoembolization (catheterize hepatic artery and fill with chemotherapy)


45-year-old man presents with rectal bleeding. Find lesion; biopsy indicates most common tumor of anal canal – diagnosis? Involved regional nodes?

Squamous cell carcinoma

Inguinal lymph nodes or superior rectal lymph nodes


45-year-old man presents with rectal bleeding. Find lesion; biopsy indicates squamous cell carcinoma. Management if:
1. 0.5 cm diameter lesion with no local extension and negative lymph nodes
2. 4 cm lesion with no local extension and negative lymph nodes
3. 8 cm lesion with positive lymph nodes

1. Local excision
2. Surgery not initially warranted (Nigro). Chemoradiation.
#4-6 weeks after chemoradiation do biopsy. If positive, do an Abdominoperineal resection
3. Chemoradiation then radical resection


70 woman presents with abdominal pain and fever (101), mild tachycardia, BPO 140/85 and tender LLQ – suspected diagnosis? Management?


1. Abdominal obstructive series or CT scan
2. Complete bowel rest, IV hydration, parenteral antibiotics, meperidine for pain relief (morphine increases intracolonic pressure)
3. If minimal symptoms, liquid diet and outpatient antibiotics


Patient presents for diverticulitis. After management, patient becomes hungry and rapidly improves. Management? Likelihood of another episode of diverticulitis? Long-term follow-up?

High-fiber diet and outpatient treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics 47-10 days

70% will have no further recurrences

Colonoscopy or barium enema to confirm presence of diverticula and absence of colon cancer


Patient presents with diverticulitis and gets CT scan – expected findings?

"Fat stranding" and edema of tissue near inflamed colon


Patient treated for diverticulitis six months previously returns with recurrence – management? Appropriate procedure?

1. Bowel rest, IV antibiotics, analgesics
2. Elective resection 4-6 weeks after inflammation resolves (to prevent perforation or abscess)



75-year-old woman with LLQ pain, fever, nausea. Obstructive series is unremarkable. Managed for acute diverticulitis. Patient deteriorates, continued pain, increasing fever, and increasing WBC count. Suspected problem? Appropriate evaluation? Management?

Free preparation for intra-abdominal abscess

CT scan

1. CT guided insertion of catheter for sampling and drainage
2. Leave in drain until drainage stops
#discharge if afebrile and tolerates food
#if does not improve with catheter drainage, Hartman procedure – resect colon with colostomy)
3. 4-8 weeks after information is controlled, colectomy


70-year-old woman presents with four hour history of bright red blood per rectum. Heart rate 115. Blood-pressure 105/70, pale conjunctiva, no personal edema, neurologically intact. Management?

1. Two large bore IVs with 1-2 L of Ringers
2. Routine blood studies and CXR
3. Place Foley
4. Placement of NG tube to rule out upper G.I. bleed (if positive, upper endoscopy)
5. Anoscopy


Most common causes of rapid lower G.I. bleeding? Other causes?

Bleeding diverticula and Vascular ectasias

Aortoenteric fistula, ischemic colitis, IBD, hemorrhoidal disease, rectal varices


vascular ectasia? Arises from? Treatment?

AV malformations arising from degeneration of intestinal submucosal veins

Coagulation with monopolar current


Left-sided versus right-sided diverticula?

More common versus more likely to bleed