Flashcards in Skin, Soft Tissue Deck (18):
Findings suggestive of melanoma?
Diameter over .6 cm
Patient has skin lesions suspicious of melanoma – next step?
Excisional biopsy unless contiguous with important structures (then incisional biopsy)
Patient presents with lesion on forearm. Management if biopsy shows:
1. Basal cell carcinoma
2. Squamous cell carcinoma
3. In situ melanoma
4. Dysplastic Nevus
#If histologic margins of free of tumor, no additional treatment.
#If margins are positive, reexcise.
#Can also use topical 5-FU or radiation.
2. #If 4 mm or greater, need 1 cm margins
#If 10 mm or greater, likely metastases to lymph nodes – However do not excise lymph notes unless clinically palpable.
#Also use 5-FU or radiation
3. Excise lesion to 1 cm margins
5. Excision and routine surveillance
Four important findings regarding melanoma that affect prognosis?
1. Histologic classification
2. TNM stage
3. Presence of ulceration (worse prognosis)
4. Lesions on the Face or truck (worse prognosis)
Patient with MELANOMA – management if:
1. 0.7 mm depth
2. 1.6 mm depth
3. 4.5 mm depth
1. Excision with 1 cm margin down to deep fascial plane followed by CXR, CBC, LFTs
C. Excision with 2 cm margins.
#If palpable lymph nodes, therapeutic lymphadenopathy
#if no palpable lymph nodes, sentinel node biopsy
3. Patient will most likely die of metastatic disease
#Excision with 2-3 cm margins
#Excision of palpable lymph nodes
#CT of abdomen, CXR, MRI of brain
#Treatment with interferon
All patients with stage IV melanoma should enter trial of what drugs?
Management if lung/brain metastases? If bone metastases?
+ Combination drugs/dacarbazine
If solitary long/brain metastases – resection
It's bone metastases – radiation
Clark levels of melanoma?
1 – confined to epidermis
2 – invades papillary dermis
3 – invades entire length of papillary dermis
4 – invades reticular dermis
5 – invades subcutis
Lentigo maligna melanoma – Age group? description? Prognosis? Management?
Elderly; superficial and spreading (not invasive)
Favorable prognosis (versus melanoma) because of superficiality
Excision with a narrow margin
Hutchinson freckle – aka? description? Prognosis? Management?
Brown lesion on the cheek – not inherently malignant but precursor of lentigo malignant melanoma.
Management (and any differences in prognosis) of melanoma if:
1. 4.2 mm depth close to nasolabial fold
2. On sole of foot
3. On subungal area of index finger
4. On anus
1. Margins of excision maybe smaller on the face
2. Thicker and associated with poorer prognosis
3. Excision involves amputation at distal interphalangeal joint (survival rate of 60%)
4. Usually on dentate line; usually require abdominoperineal resection of the anorectum; mortality near 100% in 5 years
Patient with stage I malignant melanoma removed five years ago presents with abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting. X-ray shows evidence of small bowel obstruction. Suspected diagnosis? Management? Prognosis?
Melanoma metastasis to peritoneal cavity
Exploration; poor prognosis
50-year-old man presents with painless 5cm mass on anterior thigh which has been present for months. Suspected diagnosis? Neoplasm of what tissue? Specific types (and which are associated with)?
Soft tissue sarcoma; connective tissue
Fibrosarcoma (history of therapeutic radiation) and Lymphangiosarcoma (history of axillary lymphadenectomy)
50-year-old man presents with painless 5cm mass on anterior thigh which has been present for months. Likely diagnosis? Management? Associated with poor outcome?
#Incisional Biopsy (Excisional if under 3 cm, incisional if over)
#CT scan for staging and metastases (liver, lungs, bone, brain)
#Total compartmental resection (limb sparing and provides local control)
Size greater than 15 cm or symptomatic
Total compartmental resection – Indications? Involves? Benefits?
Remove entire tumor plus all enclosing tissue (if myosarcoma, entire length of muscle, origin, insertion, investing fascia)
2. Excellent local control
Difference in treatment between low-grade and high-grade 15 cm sarcoma?
Total compartmental resection versus
1. radical amputation
2. radical compartmental resection with neoadjuvant chemoradiation
Patients with high-grade sarcoma will likely develop metastasis where? Only type of Sacoma that responds well to chemotherapy?
Lung (50% of patients)
Childhood retroperitoneal pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma
52-year-old man with history of low grades sarcoma s/p excision presents for one year follow-up. CXR shows 1.5 cm mass in the right upper lobe of lung. Management?
Management if bilateral lesions are found?
1. CT with contrast
2. Percutaneous needle biopsy or PET scan
3. If either positive, thoracic wedge resection
Median sternotomy parentheses allows multiple which resections simultaneously)