Flashcards in Lower respiratory tract infections in children Deck (28):
How common is bronchiolitis in children?
1 in 5
What are some common bacterial infective agents in LRTIs in children?
What are some common viral infective agents in LRTIs in children?
Influenza A and B
Inflammation of the trachea, leading yo airway obstruction. "Croup which does not get better" - loud barking cough and stridor (croup), except child is unwell
What are the common infections that cause tracheitis?
Staph or strep
What is stridor?
Stridor is a high-pitched breath sound resulting from turbulent air flow in the larynx or lower in the bronchial tree
What are the symptoms of tracheitis?
Barking croup cough
Inspiratory stridor (crowing)
How do you treat tracheitis?
IV antibiotics - amoxicillin and augmentin
What is co-amoxiclav?
Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combined
What are the symptoms of bronchitis?
Coughing up mucus
Loose rattly cough
Post tussle vomit - "glut"
Chest free of crepitations
How do you treat bronchitis?
You don't - mostly self limiting, even if persistent
What is bronchitis?
Inflammation of bronchi, and subsequent bacteria infections, often from disturbed mucociliary clearance
What is bronchiolitis?
Inflammation of the bronchioles
What infective agents cause bronchiolitis?
HMPV (human metapneumovirus)
How do patients with bronchiolitis presenT?
SOB, can cause difficulty feeding
Blocked nose, difficulty breathing (tongue)
Ribs sucked in
How long does bronchiolitis usually last?
How do you manage bronchiolitis?
What are the symptoms and signs of LRTIs?
Reduced or bronchial breath sounds
When is it pneumonia and not LRTI?
Signs are localised
How do you manage pneumonia in the community?
Nothing if mild
IV antibiotics if vomiting
Oram amoxycillin or macrolides
Analgesia for otitis
What is pertussis?
Highly contagious bacterial disease characterised by severe coughing fits, which can last for over 10 weeks
Vaccination reduces risk and severity
What is the only disease that causes severe coughing fits i.e. break ribs, vomit?
What organism is responsible for pertussis?
When are those with pertussis infectious to others?
From onset of symptoms till 3 weeks later
What are some complications of the coughing in pertussis?
Vertebral artery dissection
What are the symptoms of pertussis?
Severe coughing fits + high pitched "whoop"
Sneezing and runny nose
Gasping or cessation of breathing in babies
What % of children with cough for over 2 weeks are found to be positive for pertussis?