Lower respiratory tract infections in children Flashcards Preview

Respiratory system 2017 > Lower respiratory tract infections in children > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lower respiratory tract infections in children Deck (28):
1

How common is bronchiolitis in children?

1 in 5

2

What are some common bacterial infective agents in LRTIs in children?

Strep pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Moraxella catarrhalis
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Chlamydia pneumoniae

3

What are some common viral infective agents in LRTIs in children?

RSV
Parainfluenza II
Influenza A and B
Adenovirus

4

Describe tracheitis

Inflammation of the trachea, leading yo airway obstruction. "Croup which does not get better" - loud barking cough and stridor (croup), except child is unwell

5

What are the common infections that cause tracheitis?

Staph or strep

6

What is stridor?

Stridor is a high-pitched breath sound resulting from turbulent air flow in the larynx or lower in the bronchial tree

7

What are the symptoms of tracheitis?

Barking croup cough
Inspiratory stridor (crowing)
Scratchy throat
Chest pain
Fever
Earache
Headache
Dizziness
Laboured breathing

8

How do you treat tracheitis?

IV antibiotics - amoxicillin and augmentin

9

What is co-amoxiclav?

Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combined

10

What are the symptoms of bronchitis?

Coughing up mucus
Loose rattly cough
Post tussle vomit - "glut"
SOB
Wheezing
Chest discomfort
Chest free of crepitations

11

How do you treat bronchitis?

You don't - mostly self limiting, even if persistent

12

What is bronchitis?

Inflammation of bronchi, and subsequent bacteria infections, often from disturbed mucociliary clearance

13

What is bronchiolitis?

Inflammation of the bronchioles

14

What infective agents cause bronchiolitis?

RSV
Parainfluenzae
HMPV (human metapneumovirus)

15

How do patients with bronchiolitis presenT?

Coughing
Wheezing
SOB, can cause difficulty feeding
Blocked nose, difficulty breathing (tongue)
Ribs sucked in

16

How long does bronchiolitis usually last?

2 weeks

17

How do you manage bronchiolitis?

Maximum observation
Minimun intervention

18

What are the symptoms and signs of LRTIs?

Fever >38.5c
SOB
Cough
Grunting
Reduced or bronchial breath sounds

19

When is it pneumonia and not LRTI?

Signs are localised
Crepitations
High fever

20

How do you manage pneumonia in the community?

Nothing if mild
IV antibiotics if vomiting
Oram amoxycillin or macrolides
Analgesia for otitis

21

What is pertussis?

Whooping cough!

Highly contagious bacterial disease characterised by severe coughing fits, which can last for over 10 weeks

Vaccination reduces risk and severity

22

What is the only disease that causes severe coughing fits i.e. break ribs, vomit?

Pertussis/whooping cough

23

What organism is responsible for pertussis?

Bordetella pertussis

24

When are those with pertussis infectious to others?

From onset of symptoms till 3 weeks later

25

What are some complications of the coughing in pertussis?

Subconjunctival haemorrhages
Rib fractures
Urinary incontinence
Hernias
Vertebral artery dissection

26

What are the symptoms of pertussis?

Severe coughing fits + high pitched "whoop"
Sneezing and runny nose
Gasping or cessation of breathing in babies

27

What % of children with cough for over 2 weeks are found to be positive for pertussis?

40%

28

What has increased since the introduction of two pneumococcal vaccinations in Scotland?

rates of empyema