What is urothelial carcinoma?
malignant tumor arising from the urothelial lining of the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and urethra
What is the MC type of lower urinary tract cancer?
Usually arises in the bladder
What are the risk factors of urothelial carcinoma?
CIgarette smoking (MAJOR)
long-term cyclophosphamide or phenacetin use
What population often presents with urothelial carcinoma?
Clinical presentation of urothelial carcinoma
What are the two pathways in which urothelial carcinoma may arise?
Flat: develops as a high-grade flat tumor and then invades; associated with early p53 mutations
Papillary: develops as a low-grade papillary tumor that progresses to a high-grade tumor and then invades; not associated with early p53 mutations
Where does squamous cell carcinoma MC arise in the lower urinary tract?
Arises in a background of metaplasia
What are the risk factors of squamous cell carcinoma in the lower urinary tract?
- Chronic cystitis
- Schistosoma hematobium infection
- long-standing nephrolithiasis
Where does adenocarcinoma oftne arise in the lower urinary tract?
Malignant proliferation of the glands that usually involves the bladder
What structure within the bladder does adenocarcinoma usually arise from?