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Immunization

Series of shots

MMR- immunization shot against meals, mumps, rubella

Small quantity of pathogens to build immune response, memory cells to speed up recovery next time

1

Plasma membrane

Outer surface of every cell, more or less same structure in every cell

Phospholipid bilayer with proteins and other molecules imbedded

Oily fluid in which proteins and lipids are in constant motion

2

B lymphocytes

Transform into plasma cells and release antibodies into the circulation, which are proteins that tag the pathogens to signal the immune cells to destroy it

Form memory cells- every pathogen has specific surface receptors (signature), they can remember for next time how to fight the infection

3

Parts of the respiratory system

Nasal/oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary/secondary/tertiary bronchus, bronchioles (if you don't need a lot of oxygen bronchioles are slightly constricted), alveoli (site of exchange)

All made of cartilage up to the trachea

4

trophoblast

•  In mammals, the first extraembryonic membrane to form is the trophoblast.

•  When the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida, the trophoblast cells attach to the uterine wall, This is the beginning of implantation.

•  The trophoblast becomes part of the uterine wall, and sends out villi to increase surface area and contact with maternal blood.

5

Capillaries

Smallest diameter blood vessels

Made of endothelial layer only (tunica intima)

Have slits- Slits facilitate movement and exhange of materials between cells

They are the site of exchange with cells

Lowest velocity, delivering nutrients at slow speed

6

placenta

organ of exchange of nutrients and waste products between the embryo’s and the mother’s blood

7

Antenna systems

Pigments arranged in these

Also called light harvesting complexes

8

Glycoproteins

Carbohydrate and protein

9

Control of breathing

Voluntary until it becomes physiologically dangerous, your brain will force you to breathe.

•  Inspiration is initiated by stimulating the respiratory muscles
–  Diaphragm and external intercostals

•  The stimulation is initiated in the medullary centers and the pons

Medulla oblongata sends signal to spinal cord, phrenic nerve sends action potential to diaphragm. 100% controlled by brain unless you voluntarily change it, stimulation always occurring. Neurons called central patter generator, send action potentials then they stop, perfectly synced on/off mechanism

10

Glyoxisomes

Structurally similar organelles found in plants that convert lipids to carbs (fats to sugars)

11

Chemoreceptors

Homeostatic mechanism: Chemoreceptors constantly measuring level of oxygen and co2, send signal through sensory nerve fibers

Need increased inspiration during exercise, or if holding breath (decrease oxygen availability and increase co2 availability)

•  Peripheral
–  Carotid bodies
–  Aortic bodies

•  Central- within nervous system, medulla oblongata

12

How do gases cross the lung/bloodmedia?

Process of diffusion.

Alveoli made of single layered cells, blood capillaries only have tunica intima and some connective tissue, so very thin, and easy process of diffusion

Both the capillaries and the alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium

13

Action spectrum

Plot of biological activity as a function of exposure to varied wavelengths of light

14

Barriers to infection

Physical barriers

Chemical barriers

Reflexes

15

Brocca's aphasia

Can understand but cannot speak

16

Light reactions

Convert light energy to chemical energy as ATP and NADH

17

Physical barriers

Skin- brick layers of cells, most pathogens can't get through it, also produces a hard and fibrous protein called keratin. The closest layer to the surface has the highest amount of keratin- the outermost layer of skin is dead, it produced too much keratin to function

Fibrous layer of the eyes

Mucous membrane of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems, and ear- thick membrane that prevents pathogens from getting into the circulation

Cilia

18

Inspiration

Diaphragm- Lungs physically sit on diaphragm, main muscle for respiration, pushes down during inspiration

External intercostal muscles- contact and push down

19

Neutrophils

Most abundant phagocytic cells

Release:
Cytokines- alarming chemicals to alarm other immune cells
Vasodilators- increases size of blood cells, Make blood vessel bigger so immune cells can travel
Chemotaxins- chemo attractants, attract other immune cells, travel in blood vessels and squeeze out of them, can get anywhere in the body

20

Right and left ventricle

pumping chambers, physically contracting to make the blood exit (simultaneously in both circuits)

21

Thermoreceptors

Skin/organs, measure temperature

22

Photophosphorylation

Light driven production of ATP

H+ transported via electron carriers across the thylakoid membrane from the stroma into the lumen, creating an electrochemical gradient

23

Light

A form of electromagnetic radiation

Propagated as waves, energy of light is inversely proportional to wavelength (must be appropriate wavelength to be absorbed by receptive molecules

Light also behaves as particles called photons, plants absorb these

24

Nucleoplasm

Surrounds the chromatin

25

Functions of the Respiratory System

•  Provides oxygen

•  Eliminates carbon dioxide

•  Regulates pH level- More co2 you get rid of the more hydrogen ions you get rid of

•  Speech production

•  Defense against foreign bodies- non specific immunity

26

Dunedin

Microtubules cross linked by the spokes of this motor protein

Changes shape when energy is released from ATP, move vesicles toward minus end

27

Carbs can be modified by the addition of functional groups

Sugar phosphate (can make fructose biphosphate, intermediate compound in biochemical pathways)
Amino sugars (glucosamine, major component of cartilage)
Chitin ( insect and crustacean skeletons)

28

Limit of resolution for light microscopy

.61 x .4u / 1.4 = .17u

29

Oogenesis steps

Female germ cell (2n)

Mitosis

Oogonium (2n)

Mitosis

Primary oocyte (2n)

First meiotic division

Secondary oocyte (n) and first polar body

Second meiotic division, independent assortment of chromosomes

Ootid (n) and second polar body

Ovum (egg) (n), polar bodies degrade

30

Pacemaker activities

Sinoatrial node has ability to generate its own action potentials, which spread to atrioventricular node, then uncle of his, the bundle branches, then to purkinje fibers, spread from one pacemaker area to another, causes cardiac tissues to contract.

Pacemaker cells (1% of heart), make sure electrical signals are occurring and trigger release of calcium needed to contract muscles

Heart contracts in waves as the electrical activity spreads. Atrium contract first and ventricles second, gives ventricles time to relax in the slight delay

31

Peripheral membrane proteins

Lack exposed hydrophobic groups, do not penetrate bilayer (stay inside)

32

Virus

Cause major problems by taking over/infecting cells

33

Phosphodiester linkages

Bonds sugar and phosphate to form backbone of DNA and RNA

Like carbon 3 and carbon 5

Two strands of DNA run in opposite directions

34

Velocity of the action potential

Myelin speeds up the spreading of the action potential

Also insulates

35

Pulmonary circulation

Short distance circuit

Delivers deoxygenated (blood never has absolutely no oxygen) blood from the heart to the lungs

36

Mitochondria

Converts potential energy of fuel molecules into form that cell can use (ATP)

Outer lipid bilayer and highly folded inner membrane

37

Nonspecific immunity

Prevention

Attack- if it gets in the circulatory system

38

Different contributions to the zygote:

•  Sperm: DNA and a centriole, in somespecies.

•  Egg: DNA, organelles, nutrients, transcription factors, mRNAs.

39

Barriers to infection

Physical barriers

Chemical barriers

Reflexes

40

Steroids

Multiple rings share carbons

41

Chorionic villus sampling

tissue isremoved from the chorion after the eighth week

42

Receptor mediated endocytosis

Deeds on receptor proteins (integral membrane proteins) to bind to specific substances

Sites called coated pits, coated with other proteins such as clathrin

43

Twinning

•  If blastomeres separate into two groups, each can produce an embryo.

•  Monozygotic twins come from the same zygote and are identical.

•  Nonidentical twins are from two eggs fertilized by two sperm.

44

Parietal lobe

Feeling sensation

Somatosensory cortex- conscious awareness of general somatic senses, precisely locate the stimulus received (spatial discrimination)

Wernicke's area- overlaps in temporal lobe, speech comprehension

Sensory homunculus

45

Lymphoid tissues

Adenoids, tonsils, thymus, lymph noes, spleen, bone marrow, lymphatic vessels

Immune cells originate here, majorly from bone marrow

immune cells are scattered all over, but they are clustered in certain areas in case of infection

46

Functions of the extracellular matrix

Holds cells together in tissues

Contributes to physical properties of tissue

Helps filter material passing between tissues

Helps orient cell movement

Role in chemical signaling

47

Blastomere

•  Blastomeres become determined, or committed toa specific fate, at different times in different animals.

•  Roundworm and clam blastomeres are already determined at the 8-cell stage.

•  If one cell is removed, a portion of the embryo fails to develop normally. This is called mosaic development.

•  Humans have regulative development. If some cells are lost during cleavage, other cells can compensate. For genetic testing in humans, one cell can be removed from a blastula following in vitro fertilization. If there are no mutations in the gene of interest, that blastula can be implanted

48

Sharp object penetrating skin

Easiest way to get infected by a pathogen

Some cells are already in the vicinity, they destroy and then call for back up

49

Parts of the respiratory system

Nasal/oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary/secondary/tertiary bronchus, bronchioles (if you don't need a lot of oxygen bronchioles are slightly constricted), alveoli (site of exchange)

All made of cartilage up to the trachea

50

Neurohypophysis

Posterior pituitary gland, Made of neurons, can also be called neural hypophysis

Cell bodies of neurons house in hypothalamus and only part of the axon and axon terminals are located in the posterior pituitary, hormones made of peptides synthesized in hypothalamus, are made in cells and stored in axon terminals

•  Paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamussynthesize hormones that are stored in the terminals for later release
–  Oxytocin
–  Vasopressin (antidiuretic to prevent water loss and a vasoconstrictor)

51

Cell membranes and the extracellular matrix

Cell membranes adhere to the extracellular matrix

Tans,embrace protein integrity binds to the matrix outside epithelial cells and to actin filaments inside the cells, noncovalent and reversible binding

52

Secondary lysosome

Phagosomes fuse with primary lysosomes to form secondary lysosomes

Enzymes hydrolyze the food molecules

53

Phospholipids

Fatty acids bound to glycerol a phosphate group replaces one fatty acid

Phosphate group is hydrophilic "head"
"tails" are hydrophobic fatty acid chains
(ampipathic)

54

Ion channels

Specific channel proteins with hydrophilic pores

55

Electrocardiogram

Recording the electrical activities of the heart

3 sets of electrodes on two wrists, one on ankle, surface electrodes on skin pick up electrical activities from the heart, electrical activity comes from action potentials

Extracellular recording- recording sum of action potential and a high response is expected, but you get one kilovolt because of how far your surface skin is from your heart

56

The second law in relation to complex organisms

Metabolic process that take place in living tissues produce more disorr than order

Construction of 1kg of our body mass requires catabolism of 10kg of biological material

To maintain order, life needs constant input of energy

57

Steroids

Multiple rings share carbons

58

Immunization

Series of shots

MMR- immunization shot against meals, mumps, rubella

Small quantity of pathogens to build immune response, memory cells to speed up recovery next time

59

The three fundamental steps of sexual reproduction are:

–  Gametogenesis (producing sperm and eggs, requires meiosis)
–  Mating (getting sperm and egg together)
–  Fertilization (fusion of sperm and egg)

•  Gametogenesis and fertilization are fairly similar in different groups of animals.

•  Mating behaviors, however, show incredible diversity.

60

Different amino acids

5 charged hydrophilic side chains

5 polar uncharged side chains

7 non polar hydrophobic side chains

Cysteine- has terminal sulfhydryl that allows for disulfide bonding

Glycine- H as R group

Proline- modified amino group, forms a ring with R group

61

Ions

Electrically charged particles, when atoms lose or gain electrons

62

DNA and evolution

DNA carries hereditary information between generations

Determining sequence of bases helps reveal evolutionary relationships

Closest living relatives of humans are chimps and bonobo

63

Phagocytic cell migration

• The cytokines released by macrophages signal the endothelial cells to express selectin

• Margination occurs- dock and fuse with membrane, carbohydrate ligands on macrophages bind to selectin in blood vessel, move in blood vessel by rolling

• Phagocytic cells produce integrin on their membrane

• Stronger attachment occurs- immune cells are allowed to slow down and exit

• Phagocytic cells begin to move from the blood to the infected area in a process known as diapedisis

• Once in the interstitial fluid, phagocytic cells are attracted to the site of injury by chemotaxins- tell phagocytic cells exactly where to go

64

Rough ER

Has ribosomes attached

65

Physical barriers

Skin- brick layers of cells, most pathogens can't get through it, also produces a hard and fibrous protein called keratin. The closest layer to the surface has the highest amount of keratin- the outermost layer of skin is dead, it produced too much keratin to function

Fibrous layer of the eyes

Mucous membrane of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems, and ear- thick membrane that prevents pathogens from getting into the circulation

Cilia

66

Alveolar type II cells

Secrete surfactant which keeps the alveoli from collapsing

67

Electron microscope

Use electromagnets to focus an electron beam, wavelength is much shorter than light so much higher resolution .5 nm

68

Somites

separate, segmented blocks of cells on either side of the neural tube.

Muscle, cartilage, bone, and lower layer of the skin form from somites.

Neural crest cells are guided by somites to develop into peripheral nerves and other structures

69

Chemical barriers

Sebum- oily acidic substance released from sebaceous glands

Lacrimal glands- tears protect sclera and cornea, dripping through nasal cavity, washing of the eye

Lysozymes- degrading/digestive enzymes secreted from the mucous membranes

Defensins- peptides secreted from the mucous membranes

Ear wax- things get stuck

Sweat- cools body and at same time destroys microorganisms on skin, B.O. Is the degradation of bacteria on skin

Macrophages- immune cells

Stomach acid- HCl, damaging

Saliva

70

AP Step 4

Sodium ions flowing in further depolarize the membrane, VGPG are still closed

Explosive depolarization; potential reaches 0mV

71

Bone marrow

Produces mulitpotent hematopoietic cell, which in return can be a myeloid or a lymphoid progenitor cel

Stem cells- have not differentiated yet, blood stem cells can become blood cells

72

Two systems of electron transport

Non cyclic electron transport- produces NADPH and ATP

Cyclic electron transport- produces ATP only

* when you need more sugar you need more ATP than NADH, so cyclic transport is needed

73

Neutrophils

Most abundant phagocytic cells

Release:
Cytokines- alarming chemicals to alarm other immune cells
Vasodilators- increases size of blood cells, Make blood vessel bigger so immune cells can travel
Chemotaxins- chemo attractants, attract other immune cells, travel in blood vessels and squeeze out of them, can get anywhere in the body

74

Cytotoxic T Cell

Release perform and granzymes

Induce apoptosis (Fas)

Attack cancer cells which stop mitosis regulation and keep dividing- they bond to these and release perforins that poke h ones in the membrane, eater can go in, releases granzymes in the hole or proteins that activate apoptosis

75

The liver

•  Hepatocytes of the liver release bile salts that functions in fat emulsification, hydrophobic lipids aggregate together, lipase cannot do its function without bile to emulsify the fat
–  The break down of large fat droplets into smaller ones

•  Bile salts are stored in the gall bladder

76

How does the endocrine system work in general?

Hormones not released over a short distance like neurotransmitters in nervous system- instead circulate throughout the body, gland releases hormones in the circulation, every cell will be exposed to it because it is traveling in the blood

Only certain cells respond to the hormones because they are very specific, only very few have universal effects on every cell, when hormone finds a matching receptor protein it becomes functional and can do the function- cell with this receptor called a target cell

77

Digestion: Polymers Vs Monomers

Body only cares about three major molecules, you are consuming them in the polymer, want to break down into individual units that we can absorb

•  Proteins are broken down to amino acids

•  Carbohydrates are broken down to glucose, fructose, galactose

•  Lipids are broken down to fatty acids

78

Mechanoreceptors and sound

Sound converted to electrical activity, then temporal lobe interprets

Sound is vibration of air molecules

Waves of vibration can have high amplitude(loudness) or high frequency(pitch)

79

Limit of resolution for light microscopy

.61 x .4u / 1.4 = .17u

80

Nonspecific Immune response/inflammation

• Occurs through cut or injury to the skin

• Sequence of events ensue to protect the body against infection
– Phagocytosis and recruitment
– Vasodilation and increase in permeability
– Phagocytic cells migration
– Tissue repair

81

Lungs and the mechanisms of the chest

Easy, effortless to breath because of the mechanics of the lungs- always slightly inflated to make inspiration easier

Lungs attached to chest wall and inner layer of your rib cage by very thin set of membranes called a pleural sac

Ribs protect your lungs and work in synchrony with them, chest expands and increase in volume along with your lungs

82

Gestation

pregnancy

in humans is about 266 days and is divided into trimesters

83

Nonspecific Immune response/inflammation

• Occurs through cut or injury to the skin

• Sequence of events ensue to protect the body against infection
– Phagocytosis and recruitment
– Vasodilation and increase in permeability
– Phagocytic cells migration
– Tissue repair

84

Chromatin

Diffuse or long thin fibers in which DNA is bound to proteins

Prior to cell division these condense and form chromosomes

85

Gestation

pregnancy

in humans is about 266 days and is divided into trimesters

86

Microtubules

Hollow cylinders made from tubulin protein subunits

Provid rigid intracellular skeleton for some cells, function as tracks for motor proteins

Form and disassemble as the needs of the cell change

Form cilia and flagella

87

Nucleic acids

Polymers specialized for the storage, transmission, and use of genetic information

DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid (can convey info)

RNA: ribonucleic acid

88

Membranes with carbohydrates

Have carbohydrates on outer surface that serve as recognition sites for other cells and molecules

89

Different contributions to the zygote:

•  Sperm: DNA and a centriole, in somespecies.

•  Egg: DNA, organelles, nutrients, transcription factors, mRNAs.

90

How does myelin speed up the action potential

Voltage gated channels found in nodes of ranvier

Saltatory conductance

Membrane is thick where there is myelin, so no permeability, and VGC can only work at nodes

91

Spermatogenesis

Male germ cell (2n)

Mitosis

Spermatogonium (2n)

Mitosis (first DNA synthesis-Chromosomes don't separate, cross over- DNA from two pairs get scrambled)

Primary spermatocyte (2n)

first meiotic division (no DNA synthesis)

Secondary spermatocytes (1n)

Secondary meiotic division, independent assortment of chromosomes

Spermatids (1n)

Differentiation and maturation

Sperm cells (1n)

92

Inferior vena cava

Brings deoxygenated blood from all structures below diaphragm

93

Rubisco

Enzyme that catalyzes fixation of CO2

Ribosome bisphosphate carboxylase/

Most abundant protein in the world, 50% of the protein in a leaf

94

AP Step 3

Sodium ions flow through the VGSC causing membrane to become depolarized and the action potential begins

95

Somites

separate, segmented blocks of cells on either side of the neural tube.

Muscle, cartilage, bone, and lower layer of the skin form from somites.

Neural crest cells are guided by somites to develop into peripheral nerves and other structures

96

Effectors

Respond to restore the deviation from the setvalues of the internal environment

Following the commands of the control center to make a change and restore the environment

97

Where are these microorganisms?

They like moisture, food particles, want to get in blood vessels (from there they can travel all over the body)

98

The female reproductive cycle actually consists of two linked cycles:

an ovarian cycle that produces eggs and hormones and a uterine cycle that prepares the endometrium for the arrival of a blastocyst

99

Light reactions

Convert light energy to chemical energy as ATP and NADH

100

Inner cell mass

•  The inner cell mass of the blastocyst splits into an epiblast and hypoblast with a fluid-filled cavity in
between (just like the reptilian and avian gastrula).

•  The embryo forms from the epiblast.

•  The epiblast also splits off a layer of cells that form the amnion. The amnion grows around the developing embryo.

•  The hypoblast cells extend to form the chorion. Thechorion and other tissues produce the placenta.

•  The epiblast produces the amnion. Allantoic tissues form the umbilical cord.

101

Complement system

Pore formation: First complement protein (inactive), cascade of protein activation in bacterial cell

Swelling: fluid rushes into cells

Lysis

102

Chlorophylls a and b

Ring structure with magnesium atom in center

Hydrocarbon tail which anchors them to integral proteins in the thylakoids membrane

Absorb in red and blue region

103

Chemical barriers

Sebum- oily acidic substance released from sebaceous glands

Lacrimal glands- tears protect sclera and cornea, dripping through nasal cavity, washing of the eye

Lysozymes- degrading/digestive enzymes secreted from the mucous membranes

Defensins- peptides secreted from the mucous membranes

Ear wax- things get stuck

Sweat- cools body and at same time destroys microorganisms on skin, B.O. Is the degradation of bacteria on skin

Macrophages- immune cells

Stomach acid- HCl, damaging

Saliva

104

Function of Cortisol

•  Increases the fuel availability to the brain
•  Gluconeogenesis- Synthesis of glucose, started to make glucose from amino acids which is bad because you're breaking down your proteins which you need for muscles, enzymes, micro tubules, etc. but cortisol breaks it down to make glucose with causes negative effect
•  Lypolytic hormone- Breaks down fats to make sure fatty acids are available for the brain. Can end up localizing fat
•  Anti-inflammatory effects- Someone's immune system, histamine is released as an alert for immune system but that starts to decrease with cortisol (immunosuppressive)
•  Affects memory function- Permanent brain damage, kills neurons permanently
• proteolytic hormone- promotes protein breakdown, prevents growth, birth of premature babies

105

Virus

Cause major problems by taking over/infecting cells

106

Sensory cells

Sense/receive info

Transduce physical or chemical stimuli into action potentials

Receptor cells

Modified neurons

Generate electrical activity but do not look like neurons

107

When a photon meets a molecule it can be-

Scattered- photon bounces off the molecule

Transmitted- photon passed through the molecule

Absorbed- molecule squires the energy of the photon. Goes from ground state to excited state, and disappears and energy is absorbed

108

Texture of phospholipid bilayer

Flexible, the interior is fluid and allows lateral movement of molecules

Fluidity depends on temperature and composition

Region with cholesterol is stiffened

109

Neuromuscular junction

Synapse between muscle and a neuron

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter

110

Tunica interna

Made of simple squamous epithelium (endothelium)

Provide smooth surface for blood to pass through

111

Primary lysosomes

Originate from Golgi apparatus

Contain digestive enzymes- macromolecules are hydrolyzed into monomers

112

Control center

Evaluates the information from receptors

Set point (tells what a particular value should be)

Set point is a constant level, the control center compares information from receptor to this, control center initiates the changes and makes a decision

113

Bacteria

Unicellular prokaryotes

114

Smooth ER

Ribosome free region

115

Light microscopes

Glass lenses focus visible light, max resolution of .2 um

116

Pressure change

Breathing associated with skeletal muscles that are constantly contracting and relaxing, gases are quantified by pressur

Atmospheric pressure (Patm)- pressure on the outside in the environment

Alveolar pressure (Palv)-pressure inside your lungs

Intrapleural pressure (Pip)- pressure in pleural sac, fills up with fluid that exerts pressure

Alveolar and interpleural pressure are constantly fluctuating because they depend on your state

117

Motility

Digestive organs lined with smooth muscles that are involuntary and constantly contract, ensure motility (gravity has nothing to do with it) and also ensure mixing of the food

•  Propulsive
–  Movement of food at an appropriate speed

•  Mixing of food
–  To promote digestion and mixing with enzymes
–  To facilitate absorption

118

Phagocytosis

Attatchment (opsonization)- Physically bind to pathogen

Internalization, turns into phagosome

Degradation- Fuses with lysosome and becomes phagolysosome, and after the digestive enzymes can be reused

Exocytosis- elimination of debris

119

Eukaryotes

Membrane enclosed nucleus as well as other membrane enclosed compartments

Animals, plants, fungi, protists

Contains organelles, membrane enclosed nucleus

Protein scaffolding called cytoskeleton

120

Sperm anatomy

Acrosome- tip

Nucleus

Midpiece- contains mitochondria, Mitochondrial DNA from mother. When sperm goes into egg loses mitochondria

Tail- flagellum made of microtubules

121

Light

A form of electromagnetic radiation

Propagated as waves, energy of light is inversely proportional to wavelength (must be appropriate wavelength to be absorbed by receptive molecules

Light also behaves as particles called photons, plants absorb these

122

Boyle's law

Pressure and volume are inversely proportiona

Gases in a container, when volume decreased, pressure increases due to collision of gas molecules and now these gas molecules are confined to a smaller place, so more bombardment

Lungs are always changing in volume so the pressure changes as well with inspiration and expiration

123

Neural mechanism

Neurons stimulate glands to release hormones

Tiny gland that sits on top of kidneys called adrenal gland- Inner layer called adrenal medulla, releases hormone called epinephrine, which helps you deal with stress, part of sympathetic nervous system, increases heart rate etc

124

Functions of the Respiratory System

•  Provides oxygen

•  Eliminates carbon dioxide

•  Regulates pH level- More co2 you get rid of the more hydrogen ions you get rid of

•  Speech production

•  Defense against foreign bodies- non specific immunity

125

Kinesin

Motor protein, moves toward plus end

126

Gas transport through membranes

Oxygen has to cross alveoli and membrane of the capillaries to get into the plasma, and then another membrane to get inside the red blood cells

Loading phase- hemoglobin picks up oxygen

Unloading phase- release oxygen into your tissues to use, takes into mitochondria to produce ATP

127

Plasma

•  Contain proteins that exert osmoticpressure

•  Many types:
–  Albumins: transport proteins
–  Globulins: immune function
–  Fibrinogen: clotting function

•  Minerals and electrolytes

128

Calvin cycle stimulated by light

Protons pumped form stroma into thylakoids, increasing the pH which favors the activation of rubisco

Electron flow from photosystem one reduces disulfide bonds to activate calvin cycle enzymes

129

Glucose

Monosaccharide
All cells use it as an energy source
Exists most often in a ring as alpha or beta glucose depending on position of the aldehyde group (can also be found in a chain)

130

Arrangement of microtubules in flagella and cilia

9+2 array- 9 pairs and 2 individual microtubules in center

At the base of flagella and cilia is the nasal body, the 9 rings extend there

131

Calvin cycle stimulated by light

Protons pumped form stroma into thylakoids, increasing the pH which favors the activation of rubisco

Electron flow from photosystem one reduces disulfide bonds to activate calvin cycle enzymes

132

Primary structure of a protein

The sequence of amino acids

Determines secondary and tertiary structure, how the protein is folded

133

Proteins

Polymers of amino acids, each has different AA composition and order

Folding is crucial to the function of a protein, influenced by the AA sequence

134

Carrier proteins

Membrane proteins that bind some substances and speed their diffusion through the bilayer

Polar molecules such a glucose- glucose binds to protein which causes it to change shape and release glucose on the other side, but as transporters become saturated, the rate of diffusion into the cells slows down

135

Lungs and the mechanisms of the chest

Easy, effortless to breath because of the mechanics of the lungs- always slightly inflated to make inspiration easier

Lungs attached to chest wall and inner layer of your rib cage by very thin set of membranes called a pleural sac

Ribs protect your lungs and work in synchrony with them, chest expands and increase in volume along with your lungs

136

Stomach lumen

Inner layer of stomach, in contact with food

Rugae- Folds that increase surface areas to increase the rate of diffusion

Mucosa is outer layer that contains gastric pits, submucosa layer underneath

137

Best fit

Conformational state that provides the best fit binds to substrate

138

placenta

organ of exchange of nutrients and waste products between the embryo’s and the mother’s blood

139

Phagocytosis

Food molecules enter the cell through a formed phagosome

140

Steps of fertilization

–  The sperm and egg recognize each other.
–  The sperm is activated so that it can gain access to the plasma membrane of the egg.
–  The plasma membranes of the sperm and egg fuse.
–  The egg blocks entry of additional sperm.
–  The egg is stimulated to start development.
–  The egg and sperm nuclei fuse

141

Absorption spectrum

Plot of wavelengths absorbed by a pigment

142

Cleavage

a rapid series of celldivision, but no cell growth

In mammals cleavage is rotational:
First cell division is parallel to the animal–vegetal axis; yields two blastomeres.

In second division two blastomeres divide at right angles to each other;one is parallel to the axis and the other is perpendicular to it. This pattern of division is unique to mammals with placentas.

143

Branching of the airways

Conducting zone: trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles

Respiratory zone: respiratory bronchioles, alveoli (each alveolus is covered with many capillaries to facilitate the exchange of materials)

144

Energy transfer and electron transport

Light energy absorbed by antenna chlorophylls, and passed on to reaction center

Molecule goes to excited state

Energized electron from chlorophyll molecules passed to electron acceptor to reduce it

145

Lymphoid progenitor cells

Form into B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes

146

Fertilization

Fertilization is the union of haploid sperm and haploid egg to produce a single diploid cell, the zygote

147

Amino Acids Absorption

•  Absorbed by secondary active transportsimilar to carbohydrates absorption
•  Taken to the blood via carrier proteins

148

Branching of the airways

Conducting zone: trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles

Respiratory zone: respiratory bronchioles, alveoli (each alveolus is covered with many capillaries to facilitate the exchange of materials)

149

Inspiration

Diaphragm- Lungs physically sit on diaphragm, main muscle for respiration, pushes down during inspiration

External intercostal muscles- contact and push down

150

Cyclic electron transport

Electron from excited P700 chlorophyll molecule n photosystem one cycles back to the same chlorophyll molecule

Involves a series of exergonic redox reactions, the released energy creates a proton gradient that is used to synthesize ATP

151

Mechanisms of Valve Action

Shaped to prevent the back flow of blood

152

Different contributions to the zygote:

•  Sperm: DNA and a centriole, in somespecies.

•  Egg: DNA, organelles, nutrients, transcription factors, mRNAs.

153

G3P

Gylceraldehyde 3 phosphate

5/6 recycled into RuBP

1/6 converted to starch and sucrose to make glucose and fructose

154

Chlorophylls a and b

Ring structure with magnesium atom in center

Hydrocarbon tail which anchors them to integral proteins in the thylakoids membrane

Absorb in red and blue region

155

SS

Somatostatin

Inhibits release of GH

156

Cell theory

Cells are the fundamental units of life

All organisms are composed of cells

All cells come from preexisting cells

157

Antenna systems

Pigments arranged in these

Also called light harvesting complexes

158

How Are Gases Transported?

•  Once in the blood, oxygen is transported in two ways

–  1.5% is dissolved in the plasma and cytosol of erythrocytes

–  98.5 % Bound to hemoglobin

159

When a pigment molecule absorbs a photon (excited state) the energy can be-

Released as heat and/or light

Transferred to another molecule

Used for a chemical reaction

160

Rubisco

Enzyme that catalyzes fixation of CO2

Ribosome bisphosphate carboxylase/

Most abundant protein in the world, 50% of the protein in a leaf

161

Photosystem 2

Light energy oxidizes water to oxygen, H+, and electrons

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P680 absorbs at 680 nm (more energetic than P700)

Excited first

162

Muscles of Expiration

•  Passive expiration
–  Elastic recoil of the lungs

•  Active expiration
–  Contraction of internal intercostals
–  Contraction of abdominal muscles (causesdiaphragm to be pushed up)

163

seminiferous tubules

•  Spermatogenesis takes place in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.

•  Each tubule is lined with a stratified epithelium, within which spermatogoniareside and mature into sperm cells

Production of sperm is temperature dependent- if cold scrotum will cuddle against body

Stem cells can divide and divide and divide make sperm

164

Photo system 1

Light energy reduces NADP+ to NADPH

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P700 absorbs in the 700nm range

165

Calvin cycle stimulated by light

Protons pumped form stroma into thylakoids, increasing the pH which favors the activation of rubisco

Electron flow from photosystem one reduces disulfide bonds to activate calvin cycle enzymes

166

Ribosomes

Sites of protein synthesis

found free in cytoplasm, in mitochondria, bound to the endoplasmic reticulum, and in chloroplasts

Consist of ribosomal RNA and more than 50 other proteins

167

Muscles of Expiration

•  Passive expiration
–  Elastic recoil of the lungs

•  Active expiration
–  Contraction of internal intercostals
–  Contraction of abdominal muscles (causesdiaphragm to be pushed up)

168

How does the endocrine system work in general?

Hormones not released over a short distance like neurotransmitters in nervous system- instead circulate throughout the body, gland releases hormones in the circulation, every cell will be exposed to it because it is traveling in the blood

Only certain cells respond to the hormones because they are very specific, only very few have universal effects on every cell, when hormone finds a matching receptor protein it becomes functional and can do the function- cell with this receptor called a target cell

169

How does electronegativity determine the structure of water?

O is more electronegative than H, so the O has a more negative charge

170

Virus

Cause major problems by taking over/infecting cells

171

Radioisotopes after world war II

Became readily available to cell biologists to study cell metabolism

Ex: tritium(3H) emits beta particle when one extra neutron changes into a proton

Autoradiography- radioisotopes can trace the fate of molecules in cells

172

Cerebellum

Another area of motor control

Maintainance of balance

Coordination and planning of skilled voluntary muscle activity

Ipsilateral- controls right side of body

173

Pigments

Molecules that absorb specific wavelengths in the visible range of the spectrum

Photons can have a wide range of wavelengths and energy levels

174

Control of breathing

Voluntary until it becomes physiologically dangerous, your brain will force you to breathe.

•  Inspiration is initiated by stimulating the respiratory muscles
–  Diaphragm and external intercostals

•  The stimulation is initiated in the medullary centers and the pons

Medulla oblongata sends signal to spinal cord, phrenic nerve sends action potential to diaphragm. 100% controlled by brain unless you voluntarily change it, stimulation always occurring. Neurons called central patter generator, send action potentials then they stop, perfectly synced on/off mechanism

175

Muscle contraction

AP in axon terminals leads to NT release

EPP leads to AP

AP causes Ca2+ release

Ca2+ binds to troponin

Myosin binds to actin when there is Ca2+

176

Alveolar type I cells

form the wall of the alveoli

177

Components of the cytoskeleton

Microfilaments

Intermediate filaments

Microtubules

178

Nonspecific Immune response/inflammation

• Occurs through cut or injury to the skin

• Sequence of events ensue to protect the body against infection
– Phagocytosis and recruitment
– Vasodilation and increase in permeability
– Phagocytic cells migration
– Tissue repair

179

Processes in Calvin Benson cycle

Fixation of CO2 by combination with RuBP (catalyzes by rubisco)

Conversion of fixed CO2 into carbohydrate G3P (using ATP and NADPH)

Regeneration of CO2 acceptor RuBP by ATP

180

Gestation

pregnancy

in humans is about 266 days and is divided into trimesters

181

Z scheme

Model of noncyclic electron transport

Extracts electrons from water and transfers them to NADPH, using energy from photosynthesis one and two and resulting in ATP synthesis

Yields ATP, NADPH, and O2

182

Path of sperm

•  To achieve fertilization, sperm swim up the vagina, assisted by contractions of the female reproductive tract.

•  The sperm then pass through the cervix and most of the oviduct to the egg (secondary oocyte) in the upper oviduct.

•  Egg and sperm nucleus (both haploid) fuse to produce the diploid zygote.

183

Polypeptides

Another name for proteins (dipeptide, tripeptide, etc)

184

Chlorophylls a and b

Ring structure with magnesium atom in center

Hydrocarbon tail which anchors them to integral proteins in the thylakoids membrane

Absorb in red and blue region

185

Organization of the immune system

Nonspecific immune response- protects against foreign substances without having to recognize their identity

Specific immune response- highly specific, usually a major problem that your body is really trying to fight

186

Membrane potential

Extracellular fluid is outside and overall positive(Na+ and Cl-), and intracellular fluid is inside and overall negative(K+) with an impermeable membrane in between

Separate charges are attracted to each other through the membrane and create a potential- huge driving force but permeability is not always available

187

How do we study organelles?

First studied using light microscopy

Cell fractionation separates organelles for study by chemical methods (spin tubes of cells with rotor)

188

Compliance

Ability to change volume and pressure

Balloon is like the lungs- highly compliant

Paper bag- not compliant

189

Right parietal lobe damage

Left body sensation

Contralateral neglect syndrome- neglect the left side of the body

190

Function of Cerebrospinal fluid

Bathes the brain, cools it

Acts as shock absorber

Transports nutrients, chemical messengers and waste products(dumps waste into blood)

191

Nuclear lamina

Meshwork of proteins which maintains the shape of the nuclear envelope and the nucleus

192

Electrical Activity of the Heart

•  The heart is a cardiac muscle tissue that is constantly contracting (heart beat)
•  Q: how does the heart contract?
•  A: specialized cells called pacemaker cells that generate their own electrical activities

193

Monocytes/macrophages

Monocytes are inactive form, on patrol, macrophages are active, they attack

Engulf and digest

Activate T cells

Once monocytes enter tissue they become macrophages

194

Mode of travel of peptides and steroids

Peptides- travel easy in blood because water soluble

Lipids- mostly water so need transport proteins to shield them from hydrophillicity of blood because not water soluble

195

Virus

Cause major problems by taking over/infecting cells

196

The immune system

Protects against infection and microbes

Isolates and removes non microbial foreign substances

197

Muscles of Expiration

•  Passive expiration
–  Elastic recoil of the lungs

•  Active expiration
–  Contraction of internal intercostals
–  Contraction of abdominal muscles (causesdiaphragm to be pushed up)

198

Path of zygote

•  Still in the oviduct, the zygote divides to become a blastocyst and continues down the oviduct.

•  In the uterus, the blastocyst attaches to the wall lining called the endometrium.

199

What causes Ca release?

Action potentials at the axon terminal stimulate the release of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter)

ACh minds to Ach receptors activating them, Na+ entry into the cell

Na+ depolarizes the membrane

End plate polarizations (depolarization of muscle fibers, similar to graded/receptor potential) causes action potential in muscle cell

Action potential travels down sarcolemma and dips into T Tubules

Action potential activates DHPR

DHPR protrudes and touches ryanodine receptors, activating the, leading to Ca2+ release from SR into cytosol

200

Fluorescence

When a pigment returns to ground state some of the energy may be given off as heat and some as fluorescence

Fluorescence has longer wavelengths and less energy than the absorbed light energy

No chemical work done

If pigment can pass the energy to another molecule, there's no fluorescence, the energy can be passed to a reaction center where it is converted to chemical energy

201

Lymphoid tissues

Adenoids, tonsils, thymus, lymph noes, spleen, bone marrow, lymphatic vessels

Immune cells originate here, majorly from bone marrow

immune cells are scattered all over, but they are clustered in certain areas in case of infection

202

Correlation of Electrocardiogram graph and heart activities

Beginning of P wave- SA Node, AV

Middle to end of P wave- AV Nodal delay

Between P wave and QRS- Signals travel through bundle of his reaching the apex

QRS complex- pukinje fibers

Within ventricles, heart contracts from bottom to top, all the blood comes out, none remains below

203

Hair cells hyperpolarized

Movement of stereo cilia away from kinocilium closes stretch activated channels

No neurotransmitter release

204

Anencephaly

failure of the neural tube to close at the anterior end and no forebrain develops

205

Photosynthesis

"synthesis from light"

Plants take in CO2, produce carbohydrates, and release O2 and water

Light is required

6CO2 + 12H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

206

Proteins digestion

Dietary proteins

Salivary glands: pepsin breaks them down to small polypeptides

Pancreas: pancreatic trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen breaks them down into smaller polypeptides, pancreatic procarboxypeptidase breaks them down into very small peptides and amino acids

Small intestine: aminopeptidases break them down into amino acids

207

Photophosphorylation

Light driven production of ATP

H+ transported via electron carriers across the thylakoid membrane from the stroma into the lumen, creating an electrochemical gradient

208

Monocytes/macrophages

Monocytes are inactive form, on patrol, macrophages are active, they attack

Engulf and digest

Activate T cells

Once monocytes enter tissue they become macrophages

209

Pigments

Molecules that absorb specific wavelengths in the visible range of the spectrum

Photons can have a wide range of wavelengths and energy levels

210

Roles of the plasma membrane

Selectively permeable barrier

Interface for cells where info is received from adjacent cells and extracellular signals

Allows cells to maintain a constant internal environment

Molecules responsible for binding to adjacent cells

211

Glyoxisomes

Structurally similar organelles found in plants that convert lipids to carbs (fats to sugars)

212

Light independent reactions

"dark reactions"

Use ATP and NADH from light reactions plus CO2 to produce carbohydrates (because coenzymes ATP and NADH are not stored, need light for light reaction first)

213

Nonspecific Immune response/inflammation

• Occurs through cut or injury to the skin

• Sequence of events ensue to protect the body against infection
– Phagocytosis and recruitment
– Vasodilation and increase in permeability
– Phagocytic cells migration
– Tissue repair

214

Neurons

Functional units of the nervous system

Able to communicate with each other and with other cells through the body through electrical and chemical signals

215

clitoris

the anatomical analog of the male penis that is capable of erection and is highly sensitive to sexual stimulation

Both the labia minora and clitoris become engorgedwith blood during sexual stimulation

216

Nucleic acids

Polymers specialized for the storage, transmission, and use of genetic information

DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid (can convey info)

RNA: ribonucleic acid

217

Inspiration

Diaphragm- Lungs physically sit on diaphragm, main muscle for respiration, pushes down during inspiration

External intercostal muscles- contact and push down

218

Bone marrow

Produces mulitpotent hematopoietic cell, which in return can be a myeloid or a lymphoid progenitor cel

Stem cells- have not differentiated yet, blood stem cells can become blood cells

219

Pacemaker activities

Sinoatrial node has ability to generate its own action potentials, which spread to atrioventricular node, then uncle of his, the bundle branches, then to purkinje fibers, spread from one pacemaker area to another, causes cardiac tissues to contract.

Pacemaker cells (1% of heart), make sure electrical signals are occurring and trigger release of calcium needed to contract muscles

Heart contracts in waves as the electrical activity spreads. Atrium contract first and ventricles second, gives ventricles time to relax in the slight delay

220

System of respiration

Constant exchange of air: ventilation (tidal volume)

Diffusion- oxygen from lungs to blood

Circulation- bulk transport

Diffusion of oxygen into cells

Cellular respiration

221

Acinar cells

•  Acinar cells release three classes of enzymes into the duodenal lumen

–  Proteolytic enzymes: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, and procarboxypeptidase (All enzymes that digest proteins are released in inactive form, so they can be activated when you need them and specifically digest dietary proteins instead of proteins found on the membranes of cells)

–  Pancreatic amylase (digest polysaccharides into disaccharides), Completes digestion of carbohydrates

–  Pancreatic lipase (digest triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids), Needs bile from the liver to perform its function

222

Pressure change

Breathing associated with skeletal muscles that are constantly contracting and relaxing, gases are quantified by pressur

Atmospheric pressure (Patm)- pressure on the outside in the environment

Alveolar pressure (Palv)-pressure inside your lungs

Intrapleural pressure (Pip)- pressure in pleural sac, fills up with fluid that exerts pressure

Alveolar and interpleural pressure are constantly fluctuating because they depend on your state

223

Intermediate filaments

Fund in multicellular organisms, form rope like structures in cells

Stabilize cell strucuture and resist tension

Can maintain the positions of organelles

Lamins provide structural support to the nuclear membrane

224

Thickness of endometrium

About 5 days after ovulation it is at its maximal thickness and ready to accept

Highly proliferated and vasularized

225

Microbes

Harmful substances, living or dead

226

Microfilaments

Made of protein actin, can be single filaments or networks

Needed for cell contraction (as in muscle cells, associated with myosin for muscle contraction), also add structure to plasma membrane and shape to cells

Involved in cytoplasmic streaming and formation of pseudopodia

Polar, polymerizes to form long helical chains

227

Boyle's law

Pressure and volume are inversely proportiona

Gases in a container, when volume decreased, pressure increases due to collision of gas molecules and now these gas molecules are confined to a smaller place, so more bombardment

Lungs are always changing in volume so the pressure changes as well with inspiration and expiration

228

Hormonal secretion

Gland releases hormone by triggering mechanism to stimulate gland to release hormone- Different gland triggered in different ways

229

Gap junctions in cardiac muscles

protein ensures exchange of material between cells, important in heart because they ensure synchrony in contraction by spreading electrical activities

(ex all cells in atria contract at the same time, in ventricles those cells contract simultaneously to ensure efficiency)

230

Membranes with carbohydrates

Have carbohydrates on outer surface that serve as recognition sites for other cells and molecules

231

Quaternary structure

Interaction of subunits by hydrophobic interactions, van der waals forces, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds

Each subunit has its own tertiary structure

232

Most common phospholipids

Derived from glycerol except for sphingomylein

233

Cell recognition and adhesion

Sponge cells- separation and come back together

Glycoproteins are involved in cell recognition and binding

Homotypic binding- same molecule sticks out from both cells and forms a bond

Heterotypic binding- cells have different proteins

234

Turgor pressure

Plant cells with rigid walls build up internal pressure that keeps more water from entering

235

Ectoderm in heat

They have to move to a cooler area, behavioral mechanism

As temperature increases their body temperature increases

236

Nonspecific Immune response/inflammation

• Occurs through cut or injury to the skin

• Sequence of events ensue to protect the body against infection
– Phagocytosis and recruitment
– Vasodilation and increase in permeability
– Phagocytic cells migration
– Tissue repair

237

Extracellular matrix

Composed of fibrous proteins (like collagen) and glycoproteins

Epithelial cells (lining human body cavities) have basement membrane of extracellular material called the basal lamina

238

Bipolar neurons

Two extensions only

Found in ears, nose, and eyes

Functions as sensory neurons, allows you to feel

239

Pressure change

Breathing associated with skeletal muscles that are constantly contracting and relaxing, gases are quantified by pressur

Atmospheric pressure (Patm)- pressure on the outside in the environment

Alveolar pressure (Palv)-pressure inside your lungs

Intrapleural pressure (Pip)- pressure in pleural sac, fills up with fluid that exerts pressure

Alveolar and interpleural pressure are constantly fluctuating because they depend on your state

240

Parts of the respiratory system

Nasal/oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary/secondary/tertiary bronchus, bronchioles (if you don't need a lot of oxygen bronchioles are slightly constricted), alveoli (site of exchange)

All made of cartilage up to the trachea

241

T-Tubules and SR

Special voltage sensitive calcium channels (more like sensors of electrical activity) known as dihydropyridine receptors located on T Tubules, undergoes a conformational change when activated

Ryanodine receptors(foot proteins) located on lateral sacs of SR, they are typical ligand gated calcium channels that are a gateway for calcium ions to go into the cell cytosol because there is a high concentration in the SR that could build up and be toxic

242

Compliance

Ability to change volume and pressure

Balloon is like the lungs- highly compliant

Paper bag- not compliant

243

How do arteries move blood?

Arteries have high pressure, and blood aided by gravity so blood can reach far such as feet

244

Types of lipids

Fats and oils- store energy
Phospholipids- structural role in cell membranes
Carotenoids and chlorophylls- capture light energy in plants
Steroids and modified fatty acids- hormones and vitamins
Animal fat- thermal insulation
Lipid coating around nerves- electrical insulation
Oil and wax on skin fur and feathers- repels water

245

The three fundamental steps of sexual reproduction are:

–  Gametogenesis (producing sperm and eggs, requires meiosis)
–  Mating (getting sperm and egg together)
–  Fertilization (fusion of sperm and egg)

•  Gametogenesis and fertilization are fairly similar in different groups of animals.

•  Mating behaviors, however, show incredible diversity.

246

Functional group

Groups of atoms with specific chemical properties and consistent behavior

Each macromolecule has at least one

247

Triglycerides

Simple lipids composed of fatty acids and glycerol (ex:fats and oils)

248

How do gases cross the lung/bloodmedia?

Process of diffusion.

Alveoli made of single layered cells, blood capillaries only have tunica intima and some connective tissue, so very thin, and easy process of diffusion

Both the capillaries and the alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium

249

Childbirth

•  Passage of the baby is assisted by the mother’s bearing down with her abdominal muscles.

•  Once the baby is clear of the birth canal it canstart breathing and become independent of the mother’s circulation, so the umbilical cord is clamped and cut.

•  Finally, the placenta and fetal membranes are detached from the mother and expelled (several minutes–1 hour)

250

Autoimmune disease

Immune system turned against you, attacks a particular tissue

-diabetes type 1: attacks beta cells that produce insulin

-multiple sclerosis: attacks myelin, slows electrical activities

-rheumatoid arthritis: attacks joints

251

Energy transfer and electron transport

Light energy absorbed by antenna chlorophylls, and passed on to reaction center

Molecule goes to excited state

Energized electron from chlorophyll molecules passed to electron acceptor to reduce it

252

Energy transfer and electron transport

Light energy absorbed by antenna chlorophylls, and passed on to reaction center

Molecule goes to excited state

Energized electron from chlorophyll molecules passed to electron acceptor to reduce it

253

Nucleoplasm

Surrounds the chromatin

254

Lymphoid progenitor cells

Form into B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes

255

Sodium-potassium pump

Primary active transport, found in all animal cells

Pump is an integral membrane glycoprotein that is an antiporter

Gets 3 sodium ions out and 2 potassium ions in by hydrolyzing ATP

256

Photosystem

Multiple antenna systems, surround reaction centers

Pigments packed together on thylakoids membrane proteins

Excitation energy passes from the pigments that absorb short wavelengths to those that absorb longer wavelengths, and ends up in the reaction center pigment

257

Protist

Uni or multicellular, contaminate lakes and drinking water to invade host

258

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is a metal (iron) that is positively charged, and oxygen negatively charged, so they bind

259

Mechanisms of steroids action on target cells

Every cell exposed to this hormone, and steroid cell is hydrophobic so can interact with every cell but not every cell has receptor

Exits blood vessel to get to the target cell

Steroid permeates through cell membrane and forms complex called hormone receptor complex in nucleus, bind to a section of DNA gene called hormone response element that activates the gene to start gene expression

Messenger RNA made and goes to the cell cytosol

Synthesizes protien and makes changes inside the cell and causes cellular response

Slow process but major changes

260

Pressure and Volume Change

During inspiration the volume of the lungs increases and the pressure decreases- atmospheric pressure is higher than alveolar pressure, and diffusion can occur


During expiration, the volume of the lungs decreases and the pressure increases- alveolar pressure becomes higher than atmospheric pressure- diffusion outwards

261

Kinesin

Motor protein, moves toward plus end

262

seminiferous tubules

•  Spermatogenesis takes place in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.

•  Each tubule is lined with a stratified epithelium, within which spermatogoniareside and mature into sperm cells

Production of sperm is temperature dependent- if cold scrotum will cuddle against body

Stem cells can divide and divide and divide make sperm

263

Gas transport through membranes

Oxygen has to cross alveoli and membrane of the capillaries to get into the plasma, and then another membrane to get inside the red blood cells

Loading phase- hemoglobin picks up oxygen

Unloading phase- release oxygen into your tissues to use, takes into mitochondria to produce ATP

264

Korbian Brodmann

Successfully mapped the brain- 52 areas responsible for different functions

265

Secondary lysosome

Phagosomes fuse with primary lysosomes to form secondary lysosomes

Enzymes hydrolyze the food molecules

266

Carbs can be modified by the addition of functional groups

Sugar phosphate (can make fructose biphosphate, intermediate compound in biochemical pathways)
Amino sugars (glucosamine, major component of cartilage)
Chitin ( insect and crustacean skeletons)

267

AP Step 5

Once membrane reaches +30 mV the VGSC inactivate blocking the flow of sodium ions

VGPC opens causing potassium ions to flow out and repolarize the membrane

At -70 perfect repolarization begins

268

Blastocoel

a central fluid-filled cavity that forms in the ball of cells

The embryo becomes a blastula and its cells are called blastomeres

269

Blastocoel

a central fluid-filled cavity that forms in the ball of cells

The embryo becomes a blastula and its cells are called blastomeres

270

Extensive ER membrane system

Cells specialized for synthesizing proteins have these

271

Function of Saliva in theMouth

•  Contains amylase (enzyme that helps general digestion) and lingual lipase (digests lipids, minimal role)
•  Facilitates swallowing by moistening food particles
•  Provides antibacterial action by releasing lysozymes
•  Saliva dissolves food particles to stimulate taste buds, which need to be moist in order for you to taste
•  Aids in speech
•  Neutralizes ingested acid

272

Specific Recognition Between Sperm and Egg

•  Specific recognition molecules mediate interactions between sperm and eggs.

•  This ensures that activities of the sperm are directed toward eggs and not other cells and prevents eggs from being fertilized by sperm of the wrong species.

•  This latter function is particularly importantin aquatic species, such as sea urchins, that release sperm and eggs into the surrounding water.

273

Carotenoids

Light-absorbing pigments

Source of vitamin A

274

Fluorescence

When a pigment returns to ground state some of the energy may be given off as heat and some as fluorescence

Fluorescence has longer wavelengths and less energy than the absorbed light energy

No chemical work done

If pigment can pass the energy to another molecule, there's no fluorescence, the energy can be passed to a reaction center where it is converted to chemical energy

275

Glycosidic linkages

Monosaccharides bind together in these condensation reactions

Can be alpha or beta

276

First trimester

embryo becomes a fetus

Heart begins to beat by week 4

Limbs form by week 8

The first trimester is the period during which the fetus is most susceptible to damage from radiation, drugs, chemicals, and agents that cause birth defects.

The hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is released after implantation and is an early indicator of pregnancy

277

Primary lysosomes

Originate from Golgi apparatus

Contain digestive enzymes- macromolecules are hydrolyzed into monomers

278

Waxes

Highly nonpolar and impermeable to water

Ester linkage between saturated long chain fatty acid and a saturated long chain alcohol

279

Lipids digestion

Dietary lipids

Pancreas and liver: bile salts break fat globules down into fat droplets, pancreatic lipase breaks them down into glycerol, fatty acids, monoglycerides

280

Glycolipids

Carbohydrate and lipid

281

Tympanic membrane

Ear drum, small membrane connected to ossicles

282

During gastrulation, three germ layers form

–  The inner germ layer is the endoderm and gives rise to the digestive tract, circulatory tract, and respiratory tract.

–  The outer layer, the ectoderm, gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system.

–  The middle layer, the mesoderm, contributes to bone, muscle, liver, heart, and blood vessels

283

Types of lipids

Fats and oils- store energy
Phospholipids- structural role in cell membranes
Carotenoids and chlorophylls- capture light energy in plants
Steroids and modified fatty acids- hormones and vitamins
Animal fat- thermal insulation
Lipid coating around nerves- electrical insulation
Oil and wax on skin fur and feathers- repels water

284

Pathogens

Parasite

Bacteria

Protist

Fungi

Virus

285

Lymphoid progenitor cells

Form into B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes

286

Phagocytosis

Attatchment (opsonization)- Physically bind to pathogen

Internalization, turns into phagosome

Degradation- Fuses with lysosome and becomes phagolysosome, and after the digestive enzymes can be reused

Exocytosis- elimination of debris

287

Polar covalent bond

One atom has more electronegativity

288

Mast cells

• Mast cells are found throughout connective tissues (not found in blood)

• They release histamine and other chemicals involved in inflammation

289

Polypeptides

Another name for proteins (dipeptide, tripeptide, etc)

290

Branching of the airways

Conducting zone: trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles

Respiratory zone: respiratory bronchioles, alveoli (each alveolus is covered with many capillaries to facilitate the exchange of materials)

291

Saltatory conductance part 1

Active node at peak of action potential, depolarization spreads to adjacent inactive node and raises it to the threshold. Remainder of nodes still at resting potential

292

Viagra

first introduced for heart problems, sexual excitation, want blood to flow to the penis faster than it flows out, need dilation of blood vessels which requires neurotransmitter nitrous oxide, produces a dilation of the blood vessels. If excessive production of phosphodiesterase, it breaks down nitrous oxide. But Viagra inhibits phosphodiesterase, that can cause problems with vision and the breakdown of cyclic gmp

293

Coupling of reactions

Endergonic reaction releases energy (cell respiration and catabolism), high energy bonds in ATP because it takes a lot of energy to hold together the negatively charged phosphate groups, so a lot of engy is released when broken

Exeronic reaction requires energy (active transport, cell movements, anabolism)

Ends up in a cycle

294

Pili

Threadlike structures, help bacteria adhere to one another during mating or to other cells for food and protection

Some prokaryotes have these

295

Bacteria

Unicellular prokaryotes

296

Fluorescence

When a pigment returns to ground state some of the energy may be given off as heat and some as fluorescence

Fluorescence has longer wavelengths and less energy than the absorbed light energy

No chemical work done

If pigment can pass the energy to another molecule, there's no fluorescence, the energy can be passed to a reaction center where it is converted to chemical energy

297

Centrioles

Made of microtubules

Fund in organizing center near the cell nucleus

Similar to basal bodies, but in center of call and help in movement of chromosomes during cell division

298

Energy transfer and electron transport

Light energy absorbed by antenna chlorophylls, and passed on to reaction center

Molecule goes to excited state

Energized electron from chlorophyll molecules passed to electron acceptor to reduce it

299

Sarcolemma

has extensions (invaginations) that dig deep into the cytoplasm known as TTubules

Phospholipid with embedded proteins but the many invaginations maximize contact and make the electrical activities go deep inside the muscle cells so that it is closer to the myofibrils, activates certain muscles located near the SR

300

Function of Saliva in theMouth

•  Contains amylase (enzyme that helps general digestion) and lingual lipase (digests lipids, minimal role)
•  Facilitates swallowing by moistening food particles
•  Provides antibacterial action by releasing lysozymes
•  Saliva dissolves food particles to stimulate taste buds, which need to be moist in order for you to taste
•  Aids in speech
•  Neutralizes ingested acid

301

Sharp object penetrating skin

Easiest way to get infected by a pathogen

Some cells are already in the vicinity, they destroy and then call for back up

302

Virus

Cause major problems by taking over/infecting cells

303

Oogenesis

•  Oogenesis produces eggs.
•  Individual egg maturation can be arrested for months, or for as long as 10 (puberty) to 50 (menopause) years in humans!
•  During this phase, the primary oocyte grows and addsto its energy, ribosome, and organelle stores. This tpermits the resulting embryo to have nourishment.

304

Regulatory subunit

Inhibitors and activators bind here

305

Vacuoles

In plant and protist cells

Store waste products and toxic compounds; some may deter herbivores

Provides structure for plant cells, water enters by osmosis and creates turbot pressure

Stores anthocyanins(pigment) in flowers/fruit to attract pollinators

Digestive enzymes to hydrolyze stored food for early growth

306

CO2 fixation

CO2 is reduced to carbohydrates

Enzymes in the stroma use the energy in ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2

Because the ATP and NADPH are not "stockpiled," these light independent reactions must also take place in light

307

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, viruses attack immune cells, vulnerable system open to opportunistic infection

308

Gastrulation

Gastrulation is the process in which a blastulais transformed into an embryo with three
tissue layers and body axes

309

Sharp object penetrating skin

Easiest way to get infected by a pathogen

Some cells are already in the vicinity, they destroy and then call for back up

310

Acid

Releases hydrogen ions through ionization, ph less than 7

311

Cilia

Shorter, present in great numbers

312

Proteins digestion

Dietary proteins

Salivary glands: pepsin breaks them down to small polypeptides

Pancreas: pancreatic trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen breaks them down into smaller polypeptides, pancreatic procarboxypeptidase breaks them down into very small peptides and amino acids

Small intestine: aminopeptidases break them down into amino acids

313

Different contributions to the zygote:

•  Sperm: DNA and a centriole, in somespecies.

•  Egg: DNA, organelles, nutrients, transcription factors, mRNAs.

314

Phagocytosis

Attatchment (opsonization)- Physically bind to pathogen

Internalization, turns into phagosome

Degradation- Fuses with lysosome and becomes phagolysosome, and after the digestive enzymes can be reused

Exocytosis- elimination of debris

315

Microbes

Harmful substances, living or dead

316

Chorionic villus sampling

tissue isremoved from the chorion after the eighth week

317

Chemical barriers

Sebum- oily acidic substance released from sebaceous glands

Lacrimal glands- tears protect sclera and cornea, dripping through nasal cavity, washing of the eye

Lysozymes- degrading/digestive enzymes secreted from the mucous membranes

Defensins- peptides secreted from the mucous membranes

Ear wax- things get stuck

Sweat- cools body and at same time destroys microorganisms on skin, B.O. Is the degradation of bacteria on skin

Macrophages- immune cells

Stomach acid- HCl, damaging

Saliva

318

When a pigment molecule absorbs a photon (excited state) the energy can be-

Released as heat and/or light

Transferred to another molecule

Used for a chemical reaction

319

Chromatin

Diffuse or long thin fibers in which DNA is bound to proteins

Prior to cell division these condense and form chromosomes

320

Path of zygote

•  Still in the oviduct, the zygote divides to become a blastocyst and continues down the oviduct.

•  In the uterus, the blastocyst attaches to the wall lining called the endometrium.

321

Autoimmune disease

Immune system turned against you, attacks a particular tissue

-diabetes type 1: attacks beta cells that produce insulin

-multiple sclerosis: attacks myelin, slows electrical activities

-rheumatoid arthritis: attacks joints

322

Absorption spectrum

Plot of wavelengths absorbed by a pigment

323

Amniocentesis

extraction of amnioticfluid with a needle, after the fourteenth week of pregnancy

324

Sertoli cells

•  The germ cells are protected from noxioussubstances in the blood by Sertoli cells, which also provide nutrients for the developing sperm and are involved in the hormonal control of spermatogenesis.

325

Photosynthesis in noncyclic electron electron transport

Each photosystem consists of several chlorophyll and accessory pigment molecules

Complement each other, must be constantly absorbing light energy to power noncyclic electron transport

326

Mitochondrial matrix

Region enclosed by inner membrane

Krebs or citric acid cycle takes place here

327

Smooth ER

Ribosome free region

328

Phagocytosis & Recruitment

• Macrophages in the nearby tissue detect bacteria using receptor proteins to engulf them
• Macrophages release cytokines- chemicals for recruitment
• Mast cells release histamine- causes vasodilation
• Injured cells release chemotaxins- chemo attractants to attract immune cells

329

Sharp object penetrating skin

Easiest way to get infected by a pathogen

Some cells are already in the vicinity, they destroy and then call for back up

330

Bacteria

Unicellular prokaryotes

331

Lipids digestion

Dietary lipids

Pancreas and liver: bile salts break fat globules down into fat droplets, pancreatic lipase breaks them down into glycerol, fatty acids, monoglycerides

332

Eukaryotes

Membrane enclosed nucleus as well as other membrane enclosed compartments

Animals, plants, fungi, protists

Contains organelles, membrane enclosed nucleus

Protein scaffolding called cytoskeleton

333

Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

•  The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by secreting hypophysiotropic hormones (releasing hormones)
–  Dopamine (DA)
–  Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
–  Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
–  Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
–  Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)–  Somatostatin (SS)

334

Phagocytosis

Attatchment (opsonization)- Physically bind to pathogen

Internalization, turns into phagosome

Degradation- Fuses with lysosome and becomes phagolysosome, and after the digestive enzymes can be reused

Exocytosis- elimination of debris

335

Components of homeostatic system

•  Receptors
–  Provide information about specific conditions
•  Control Center
–  Evaluates the information from receptors
–  Set point
•  Effectors
–  Respond to restore the deviation from the setvalues of the internal environment

336

Amino Acids Absorption

•  Absorbed by secondary active transportsimilar to carbohydrates absorption
•  Taken to the blood via carrier proteins

337

Nuclear pores

In the nuclear envelope, connect the interior of the nucleus with the rest of the cytoplasm

Pore complex- 8 large protein granules surround each pore

RNA and proteins must pass through these pores to enter or leave the nucleus

338

Processes in Calvin Benson cycle

Fixation of CO2 by combination with RuBP (catalyzes by rubisco)

Conversion of fixed CO2 into carbohydrate G3P (using ATP and NADPH)

Regeneration of CO2 acceptor RuBP by ATP

339

Base

Releases hydroxide ions, accept H+, ph greater than 7

340

Photo system 1

Light energy reduces NADP+ to NADPH

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P700 absorbs in the 700nm range

341

Absorption spectrum

Plot of wavelengths absorbed by a pigment

342

Sharp object penetrating skin

Easiest way to get infected by a pathogen

Some cells are already in the vicinity, they destroy and then call for back up

343

Second trimester

limbs elongate and facial features form

344

Golgi apparatus

Has flattened membrane sacs and small membrane enclosed vesicles

345

Phagocytosis

Attatchment (opsonization)- Physically bind to pathogen

Internalization, turns into phagosome

Degradation- Fuses with lysosome and becomes phagolysosome, and after the digestive enzymes can be reused

Exocytosis- elimination of debris

346

G3P

Gylceraldehyde 3 phosphate

5/6 recycled into RuBP

1/6 converted to starch and sucrose to make glucose and fructose

347

Blastocoel

a central fluid-filled cavity that forms in the ball of cells

The embryo becomes a blastula and its cells are called blastomeres

348

Pathogens

Parasite

Bacteria

Protist

Fungi

Virus

349

Male genitalia

Penis and scrotum

350

Pressure and Volume Change

During inspiration the volume of the lungs increases and the pressure decreases- atmospheric pressure is higher than alveolar pressure, and diffusion can occur


During expiration, the volume of the lungs decreases and the pressure increases- alveolar pressure becomes higher than atmospheric pressure- diffusion outwards

351

Photosynthesis

"synthesis from light"

Plants take in CO2, produce carbohydrates, and release O2 and water

Light is required

6CO2 + 12H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

352

Sterile cotton swab

Collect microorganisms by smearing on surface

Put on a culture dish with solution called tryptic soy agar, which has nutrients that make bacteria reproduce so you can see them

353

Premature Contractions and Delivery

•  A positive feedback loop develops (mechanical stimuli increase the release of oxytocin, and vice versa), and this converts Braxton-Hicks contractions into stronger labor contractions.

•  In the early stage of labor, contractions gradually become more frequent and intense until they haveopened the cervix.

•  In the delivery stage, the baby’s head moves into the vagina and becomes visible from the outside.

•  The usual head-down position of the baby comes about during the seventh month of pregnancy.

354

Nuclear pores

In the nuclear envelope, connect the interior of the nucleus with the rest of the cytoplasm

Pore complex- 8 large protein granules surround each pore

RNA and proteins must pass through these pores to enter or leave the nucleus

355

Pili

Threadlike structures, help bacteria adhere to one another during mating or to other cells for food and protection

Some prokaryotes have these

356

TRH

Thyrotropin releasing hormone

Stimulates release of TSH

357

Photosynthesis

"synthesis from light"

Plants take in CO2, produce carbohydrates, and release O2 and water

Light is required

6CO2 + 12H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

358

Anencephaly

failure of the neural tube to close at the anterior end and no forebrain develops

359

Cleavage

a rapid series of celldivision, but no cell growth

In mammals cleavage is rotational:
First cell division is parallel to the animal–vegetal axis; yields two blastomeres.

In second division two blastomeres divide at right angles to each other;one is parallel to the axis and the other is perpendicular to it. This pattern of division is unique to mammals with placentas.

360

Centrioles

Made of microtubules

Fund in organizing center near the cell nucleus

Similar to basal bodies, but in center of call and help in movement of chromosomes during cell division

361

How does photosynthesis convert light energy to chemical energy?

Reaction center converts light energy to chemical energy

Excited chlorophyll a molecule (Chl*) is a reducing agent (electron donor)

A is an acceptor molecule (oxidizing agent)

Chl* + A --> Chl+ + A-

A is the first in a chain of electron carriers on the thylakoid membrane (electron transport) a series of redox reactions

Final electron acceptor is NADP+

NADP+ + e- --> NADPH + H+

362

Eukaryotes

Membrane enclosed nucleus as well as other membrane enclosed compartments

Animals, plants, fungi, protists

Contains organelles, membrane enclosed nucleus

Protein scaffolding called cytoskeleton

363

Genome

Complete set of DNA in a living organism

364

Vasodilation & Increased Permeability

• Histamine causes vasodilation
– increases diameter, Increase in blood flow to infected area
– Redness occurs
– Increase delivery of proteins
– Edema occurs- swelling, fluid from blood cells into interstitial tissue

• increased permeability- proteins gain entry from blood to interstitial fluid

• objective- get more immune cells

365

Secondary structure

Alpha helix- right handed coil, resulting from hydrogen bonding, common in fibrous structural proteins

Beta pleated sheet- two or more polypeptide chains are aligned, hydrogen bonded

366

Muscles of Expiration

•  Passive expiration
–  Elastic recoil of the lungs

•  Active expiration
–  Contraction of internal intercostals
–  Contraction of abdominal muscles (causesdiaphragm to be pushed up)

367

Monosaccharides with different numbers of carbons

Hexoses: six carbons, has structural isomers (mannose, galactose, fructose)

Pentoses: five carbons (ribose has OH, deoxyribose is more stable, has H)

368

Processes in Calvin Benson cycle

Fixation of CO2 by combination with RuBP (catalyzes by rubisco)

Conversion of fixed CO2 into carbohydrate G3P (using ATP and NADPH)

Regeneration of CO2 acceptor RuBP by ATP

369

Photosystem 2

Light energy oxidizes water to oxygen, H+, and electrons

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P680 absorbs at 680 nm (more energetic than P700)

Excited first

370

Non spontaneous reaction

Need input of energy

Endergonic, positive delta G

Reverse process must be exergonic

371

Oval window

Membrane covered opening, leads from middle ear to inner ear

372

Lymphoid progenitor cells

Form into B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes

373

How do veins move blood?

low pressure because at the end of that circuit, hold the majority of blood, and if the blood is going back up it is working against gravity, dead on skeletal muscles

Skeletal muscle pump- veins are in between muscles and contraction pumps blood, valves in veins prevent blood from coming back down when muscles relax

374

Microbes

Harmful substances, living or dead

375

Autoimmune disease

Immune system turned against you, attacks a particular tissue

-diabetes type 1: attacks beta cells that produce insulin

-multiple sclerosis: attacks myelin, slows electrical activities

-rheumatoid arthritis: attacks joints

376

Ingredients for photosynthesis

Co2 reduced to sugars that travel throughout the plant body

Water up taken by roots

Water and oxygen released

377

Path of the egg

the mature egg is released into the body cavity and is swept into the end of the oviduct (Fallopian tube) by an undulating fringe of tissue (Fertilization takes place in the oviduct and, in humans, the second meiotic division takes place)

Cilia lining the oviduct propel the fertilized or unfertilized egg toward the uterus, a muscular, thick-walled cavity

The opening at the bottom of the uterus is the cervix,which leads into the vagina

378

Salts

Ionically bonded compounds

379

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is a metal (iron) that is positively charged, and oxygen negatively charged, so they bind

380

Pressure change

Breathing associated with skeletal muscles that are constantly contracting and relaxing, gases are quantified by pressur

Atmospheric pressure (Patm)- pressure on the outside in the environment

Alveolar pressure (Palv)-pressure inside your lungs

Intrapleural pressure (Pip)- pressure in pleural sac, fills up with fluid that exerts pressure

Alveolar and interpleural pressure are constantly fluctuating because they depend on your state

381

If blocker blocked gated channels?

It would stop action potentials

Tetrodotoxin- in puffer fish, affects predators
novociane- pain suppressors block VGSC, both reversible

382

Spina bifida

failure of the neural tube to fuse in a posterior region dueto vitamin B deficiency

383

Lungs and the mechanisms of the chest

Easy, effortless to breath because of the mechanics of the lungs- always slightly inflated to make inspiration easier

Lungs attached to chest wall and inner layer of your rib cage by very thin set of membranes called a pleural sac

Ribs protect your lungs and work in synchrony with them, chest expands and increase in volume along with your lungs

384

Cations

Positive

385

Function of the DigestiveSystem

• Breaks down the food we eat, breaking the covalent bonds that make up large molecules

•  Absorbs the food to transfer it to cells
-Food can be used with oxygen to produce energy
-travels from digestive system into blood, so it can be accessible to our cells

386

Gated channels

Can be closed or open to ion passage, most ion channels are gated

Gate opens when protein is stimulated to change shape

Stimulus can be molecule (ligand gated) or electrical charge resulting from many ions (voltage gated)

387

Stoma

Mouth of plant

Co2 enters and O2/water exit through these pores

388

How is Carbon Dioxide Transported?

5-6% dissolved in plasma

5-8% bind to hemoglobin at a different binding site than oxygen

86-90% converted to hydrogen ions and bicarbonate by enzyme called carbonic anhydrase. When co2 goes up hydrogen ions go up and ph decreases, and vice versa. Want ph of 7.4

389

Binocular vision

Overlap of left and right visual field, gives us depth perception

390

Spermatogenesis

Male germ cell (2n)

Mitosis

Spermatogonium (2n)

Mitosis (first DNA synthesis-Chromosomes don't separate, cross over- DNA from two pairs get scrambled)

Primary spermatocyte (2n)

first meiotic division (no DNA synthesis)

Secondary spermatocytes (1n)

Secondary meiotic division, independent assortment of chromosomes

Spermatids (1n)

Differentiation and maturation

Sperm cells (1n)

391

Chemoreceptors

Homeostatic mechanism: Chemoreceptors constantly measuring level of oxygen and co2, send signal through sensory nerve fibers

Need increased inspiration during exercise, or if holding breath (decrease oxygen availability and increase co2 availability)

•  Peripheral
–  Carotid bodies
–  Aortic bodies

•  Central- within nervous system, medulla oblongata

392

Major endocrine glands

Hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, Thyroid,Parathyroid, Adrenal glands, Pancreas, Gonads

393

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is a metal (iron) that is positively charged, and oxygen negatively charged, so they bind

394

Complement system

Pore formation: First complement protein (inactive), cascade of protein activation in bacterial cell

Swelling: fluid rushes into cells

Lysis

395

emission

contractions of smooth muscles in the vasa deferentia and accessory glands move semen into the urethra

396

Gas transport through membranes

Oxygen has to cross alveoli and membrane of the capillaries to get into the plasma, and then another membrane to get inside the red blood cells

Loading phase- hemoglobin picks up oxygen

Unloading phase- release oxygen into your tissues to use, takes into mitochondria to produce ATP

397

Ruben and kamen

Used radioisotope tracers (O18 and O16) to determine that water was the source of O2 released during photosynthesis rather than CO2

398

Autoimmune disease

Immune system turned against you, attacks a particular tissue

-diabetes type 1: attacks beta cells that produce insulin

-multiple sclerosis: attacks myelin, slows electrical activities

-rheumatoid arthritis: attacks joints

399

Processes in Calvin Benson cycle

Fixation of CO2 by combination with RuBP (catalyzes by rubisco)

Conversion of fixed CO2 into carbohydrate G3P (using ATP and NADPH)

Regeneration of CO2 acceptor RuBP by ATP

400

Neutrophils

Most abundant phagocytic cells

Release:
Cytokines- alarming chemicals to alarm other immune cells
Vasodilators- increases size of blood cells, Make blood vessel bigger so immune cells can travel
Chemotaxins- chemo attractants, attract other immune cells, travel in blood vessels and squeeze out of them, can get anywhere in the body

401

Accessory pigments

Transfer energy absorbed to chorophylls

Carotenoids and phycobilins

Absorb intermediate between red and blue

402

Sterile cotton swab

Collect microorganisms by smearing on surface

Put on a culture dish with solution called tryptic soy agar, which has nutrients that make bacteria reproduce so you can see them

403

Phagocytosis

Food molecules enter the cell through a formed phagosome

404

Peroxisomes

Also called microbodies

Small organelles specialized to compartmentalize toxic peroxides and break them down

Break down of hydrogen peroxide through catalase

405

Autoimmune disease

Immune system turned against you, attacks a particular tissue

-diabetes type 1: attacks beta cells that produce insulin

-multiple sclerosis: attacks myelin, slows electrical activities

-rheumatoid arthritis: attacks joints

406

Pigments

Molecule that undergoes chemical change when responding to light

Rods- protein rhodopsin

Cones- protein photopsin, S(blue) M(green) L(red) pigments

These proteins contain a pigment called retinal

407

third trimester

internal organs mature and organ systems begin to function

The last organs to mature before birthare the lungs

408

Parts of the respiratory system

Nasal/oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary/secondary/tertiary bronchus, bronchioles (if you don't need a lot of oxygen bronchioles are slightly constricted), alveoli (site of exchange)

All made of cartilage up to the trachea

409

Mast cells

• Mast cells are found throughout connective tissues (not found in blood)

• They release histamine and other chemicals involved in inflammation

410

Organization of the immune system

Nonspecific immune response- protects against foreign substances without having to recognize their identity

Specific immune response- highly specific, usually a major problem that your body is really trying to fight

411

Cochlea

Filled with fluid

3 chambers: scala vestibuli/tympani (filled with perilymph, a filtrate of csf, movement of this generates electrical activity) and also cochlear duct (filled with endolymph)

Organ of corti in the center

Connected to auditory nerve

412

Hormonal secretion

Gland releases hormone by triggering mechanism to stimulate gland to release hormone- Different gland triggered in different ways

413

Cytotoxic T Cell

Release perform and granzymes

Induce apoptosis (Fas)

Attack cancer cells which stop mitosis regulation and keep dividing- they bond to these and release perforins that poke h ones in the membrane, eater can go in, releases granzymes in the hole or proteins that activate apoptosis

414

Nuclear envelope

Formed by two lipid bilayers

415

Photo system 1

Light energy reduces NADP+ to NADPH

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P700 absorbs in the 700nm range

416

Gestation

pregnancy

in humans is about 266 days and is divided into trimesters

417

Blood

Made of cellular components, erythrocytes(red blood cells, carry oxygen), leukocytes, and platelets (minimize blood loss and promote blood plotting) suspended in a plasma fluid

Plasma contains water and proteins (hormones, ions, glucose, amino acids etc)

Only fluid like connective tissue, 90% water. Fluid and cellular component

418

Energy transfer and electron transport

Light energy absorbed by antenna chlorophylls, and passed on to reaction center

Molecule goes to excited state

Energized electron from chlorophyll molecules passed to electron acceptor to reduce it

419

G3P

Gylceraldehyde 3 phosphate

5/6 recycled into RuBP

1/6 converted to starch and sucrose to make glucose and fructose

420

Premature Contractions and Delivery

•  A positive feedback loop develops (mechanical stimuli increase the release of oxytocin, and vice versa), and this converts Braxton-Hicks contractions into stronger labor contractions.

•  In the early stage of labor, contractions gradually become more frequent and intense until they haveopened the cervix.

•  In the delivery stage, the baby’s head moves into the vagina and becomes visible from the outside.

•  The usual head-down position of the baby comes about during the seventh month of pregnancy.

421

Artery

Strong elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart

Branch into smaller arterioles

Elastic- when heart ejects blood they have to accommodate a large amount of blood, very high pressure, contraction of heart, arteries accommodating this force

Uniform shape

422

Lipids

Non polar hydrocarbons
Van der waals forces- not polymers in strict sense because they are not covalently bonded

423

Amniocentesis

extraction of amnioticfluid with a needle, after the fourteenth week of pregnancy

424

Unipolar neurons

Short single process and divide into two long branches

Function as sensory (efferent) neuron

425

Movement from capillaries into interstitial fluid

Small things such as ions, glucose, amino acids can move through slits

Small proteins need to move by transcytosis (endo and exo cytosis)

Large proteins cannot get through

426

Gap junctions

Allow communication, transmit current through channels

Regulated and controlled by ions

427

Ruben and kamen

Used radioisotope tracers (O18 and O16) to determine that water was the source of O2 released during photosynthesis rather than CO2

428

GH

Growth hormone

Promotes growth

Target organ: muscles, liver, bones, etc

429

Chemical structure of hormones

•  Hormones can be made of steroids or peptides
•  Their synthesis and secretion vary
•  Their chemical structure determines their mechanisms of action on target cells

430

Gestation

pregnancy

in humans is about 266 days and is divided into trimesters

431

Different contributions to the zygote:

•  Sperm: DNA and a centriole, in somespecies.

•  Egg: DNA, organelles, nutrients, transcription factors, mRNAs.

432

Control of breathing

Voluntary until it becomes physiologically dangerous, your brain will force you to breathe.

•  Inspiration is initiated by stimulating the respiratory muscles
–  Diaphragm and external intercostals

•  The stimulation is initiated in the medullary centers and the pons

Medulla oblongata sends signal to spinal cord, phrenic nerve sends action potential to diaphragm. 100% controlled by brain unless you voluntarily change it, stimulation always occurring. Neurons called central patter generator, send action potentials then they stop, perfectly synced on/off mechanism

433

Rods in the dark

Photoreceptors are depolarized, no signal to the brain

Chemically gated channels area activated by guanosine mono phosphate (a nucleotide), when these levels are high channels are opened

Steps:
CGMP levels are high

Na+ channels are open

Na+ influx causes depolarization- small activity, receptor potential

Ca+ channels open

Ca+ influx occurs

NT release causes graded potential in bipolar cells

434

Peroxisomes

Also called microbodies

Small organelles specialized to compartmentalize toxic peroxides and break them down

Break down of hydrogen peroxide through catalase

435

Pacemaker cells

•  Sinoatrial node (SA) located in the right atrium

•  Atrioventricular node (AV) located on the interatrial septum

•  Bundle of His: located on the interventicular septum

•  Bundle branches

•  Purkinje fibers: located on the ventricular walls

436

When a pigment molecule absorbs a photon (excited state) the energy can be-

Released as heat and/or light

Transferred to another molecule

Used for a chemical reaction

437

Inferior vena cava

Brings deoxygenated blood from all structures below diaphragm

438

Complement system

Pore formation: First complement protein (inactive), cascade of protein activation in bacterial cell

Swelling: fluid rushes into cells

Lysis

439

Cyclic electron transport

Electron from excited P700 chlorophyll molecule n photosystem one cycles back to the same chlorophyll molecule

Involves a series of exergonic redox reactions, the released energy creates a proton gradient that is used to synthesize ATP

440

Proteins and lipids in the membrane interacting

Independent, only interact noncovalently

Some membrane proteins have fatty acids or other lipid groups covalently attached, called anchored membrane proteins

441

Pressure and Volume Change

During inspiration the volume of the lungs increases and the pressure decreases- atmospheric pressure is higher than alveolar pressure, and diffusion can occur


During expiration, the volume of the lungs decreases and the pressure increases- alveolar pressure becomes higher than atmospheric pressure- diffusion outwards

442

Receptors

Provide information about specific conditions

Group of cells that detects and senses the environment, do not have the ability to change anything, they are like a reporting agency that sends info to control center

443

Flagella

Come in ones and twos, longer than cilia

444

Blastomere

•  Blastomeres become determined, or committed toa specific fate, at different times in different animals.

•  Roundworm and clam blastomeres are already determined at the 8-cell stage.

•  If one cell is removed, a portion of the embryo fails to develop normally. This is called mosaic development.

•  Humans have regulative development. If some cells are lost during cleavage, other cells can compensate. For genetic testing in humans, one cell can be removed from a blastula following in vitro fertilization. If there are no mutations in the gene of interest, that blastula can be implanted

445

Diameter of blood vessels

Blood vessels decrease in diameter when a part of your body is not in use, happens because of the tunica media.

Arteries- more tunica media because more regulation

Rest (tone), vasoconstriction, vasodilation

446

Arrangement of microtubules in flagella and cilia

9+2 array- 9 pairs and 2 individual microtubules in center

At the base of flagella and cilia is the nasal body, the 9 rings extend there

447

Peristaltic contraction

Unidirectional movement of food through the stomach

448

Chorionic villus sampling

tissue isremoved from the chorion after the eighth week

449

Protist

Uni or multicellular, contaminate lakes and drinking water to invade host

450

Axon

Each neuron has one, generates and conducts signals away from the soma (unidirectional)

Abundant micro tubules for transport

Also known as nerve fibers

451

Phagocytosis & Recruitment

• Macrophages in the nearby tissue detect bacteria using receptor proteins to engulf them
• Macrophages release cytokines- chemicals for recruitment
• Mast cells release histamine- causes vasodilation
• Injured cells release chemotaxins- chemo attractants to attract immune cells

452

How is polypeptide chain organized?

Like a sentence- "capital letter" is like the amino group of the first amino acid, and the "period" is like the carboxyl group of the last amino acid

453

Components of homeostatic system

Receptors

Control centers

Effectors

454

Vein

Carry blood back to the heart

Have thinner walls than arteries

Small branches are called venules

Not elastic, have low pressure

Thin and collapsed

455

Triglycerides

Simple lipids composed of fatty acids and glycerol (ex:fats and oils)

456

Creatine supplements

Do not make a difference for the average individual (maybe will give Olympic athlete the extra boost they need) increases power for a limited amount of time and then the effect is gone

457

Photo system 1

Light energy reduces NADP+ to NADPH

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P700 absorbs in the 700nm range

458

Antenna systems

Pigments arranged in these

Also called light harvesting complexes

459

Limit of resolution for light microscopy

.61 x .4u / 1.4 = .17u

460

Photosystem

Multiple antenna systems, surround reaction centers

Pigments packed together on thylakoids membrane proteins

Excitation energy passes from the pigments that absorb short wavelengths to those that absorb longer wavelengths, and ends up in the reaction center pigment

461

Somites

separate, segmented blocks of cells on either side of the neural tube.

Muscle, cartilage, bone, and lower layer of the skin form from somites.

Neural crest cells are guided by somites to develop into peripheral nerves and other structures

462

Where are these microorganisms?

They like moisture, food particles, want to get in blood vessels (from there they can travel all over the body)

463

Nuclear envelope

Formed by two lipid bilayers

464

Mast cells

• Mast cells are found throughout connective tissues (not found in blood)

• They release histamine and other chemicals involved in inflammation

465

Inspiration

Diaphragm- Lungs physically sit on diaphragm, main muscle for respiration, pushes down during inspiration

External intercostal muscles- contact and push down

466

Hypophysis (pituitary gland)

Located behind your nose, size of pea, need it to survive

9 hormones each with particular function

Two separate lobes (anterior and posterior)

467

Alveolar type II cells

Secrete surfactant which keeps the alveoli from collapsing

468

Neural pathway

Skin receptors to sensory neuron (receives signal and sends to CNS) to interneuron(processes) to motor neuron to effector

469

Photosynthesis

"synthesis from light"

Plants take in CO2, produce carbohydrates, and release O2 and water

Light is required

6CO2 + 12H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

470

Functions of the Respiratory System

•  Provides oxygen

•  Eliminates carbon dioxide

•  Regulates pH level- More co2 you get rid of the more hydrogen ions you get rid of

•  Speech production

•  Defense against foreign bodies- non specific immunity

471

Extracellular destruction: complement

• Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
– Embeds itself in the microbe membrane, forming pores
– Water and salt enter the microbe

Proteins released by liver to do the job: complement system

472

Z scheme

Model of noncyclic electron transport

Extracts electrons from water and transfers them to NADPH, using energy from photosynthesis one and two and resulting in ATP synthesis

Yields ATP, NADPH, and O2

473

Accessory Digestive Organs

Food does not get to them but there is important secretion

•  Salivary glands
–  Sublingual (under tongue), submandibular (under mandible), parotid (gland by ear
•  Pancreas
•  Liver
•  Gallbladder

474

What Affects Hb-OxygenBinding?

Demands for oxygen changing depending on your state. (if sitting, cells in legs not picking up that much oxygen) so ATP production chants, and more ATP produced the more oxygen you get delivered. Waste products signify how much ATP you are making so your red blood cells know.

•  BPG (2,3 Bisphosphoglyceric acid)- BPG by product of glycolysis- when increases, unload more oxygen.

•  Temperature

•  Acidity- lactic acid is byproduct of fermentation

475

Ribosomes

Sites of protein synthesis

found free in cytoplasm, in mitochondria, bound to the endoplasmic reticulum, and in chloroplasts

Consist of ribosomal RNA and more than 50 other proteins

476

Functions of the Respiratory System

•  Provides oxygen

•  Eliminates carbon dioxide

•  Regulates pH level- More co2 you get rid of the more hydrogen ions you get rid of

•  Speech production

•  Defense against foreign bodies- non specific immunity

477

Calvin and benson

Used 14C radioisotope to determine the sequence of reactions in CO2 fixation

Exposed chlorella to 14CO2 then extracted the organic compounds and separated them by paper chromatography

3 second exposure of chlorella to 14CO2 revealed that the first compound to be formed is 3PG, a 3 carbon sugar phosphate

478

Gas transport through membranes

Oxygen has to cross alveoli and membrane of the capillaries to get into the plasma, and then another membrane to get inside the red blood cells

Loading phase- hemoglobin picks up oxygen

Unloading phase- release oxygen into your tissues to use, takes into mitochondria to produce ATP

479

Where are these microorganisms?

They like moisture, food particles, want to get in blood vessels (from there they can travel all over the body)

480

Functions of the extracellular matrix

Holds cells together in tissues

Contributes to physical properties of tissue

Helps filter material passing between tissues

Helps orient cell movement

Role in chemical signaling

481

Leydig cells

Male sex hormones are produced by clusters of Leydig cells lying between the seminiferous tubules.

482

Ester linkage

Carboxyl bind with hydroxyls of glycerol

483

Cell membranes and the extracellular matrix

Cell membranes adhere to the extracellular matrix

Tans,embrace protein integrity binds to the matrix outside epithelial cells and to actin filaments inside the cells, noncovalent and reversible binding

484

Secondary active transport

Energy comes from an ion concentration gradient that is established by primary active transport

Energy can be "regained" by letting ions move across a membrane with the concentration gradient

Aids in uptake of amino acids and sugars

Uses symporters and antiporters

485

Light reactions

Convert light energy to chemical energy as ATP and NADH

486

Entry of Sperm into the Egg

•  In animals with internal fertilization, egg–sperm recognition mechanisms also exist.
•  In the female reproductive tract, mammalian sperm are metabolically activated and attracted to the egg in the oviduct, but also aided in their movement by muscular contractions.
•  The mammalian egg is surrounded by a thick layer called the cumulus. Beneath that is a protein envelope called the zona pellucida.
•  A species-specific glycoprotein in the zona pellucida binds to the head of the sperm.
•  The acrosomal reaction is triggered, releasing acrosomal enzymes that digest a path through the zona pellucida

487

Plasma

•  Contain proteins that exert osmoticpressure

•  Many types:
–  Albumins: transport proteins
–  Globulins: immune function
–  Fibrinogen: clotting function

•  Minerals and electrolytes

488

Physical barriers

Skin- brick layers of cells, most pathogens can't get through it, also produces a hard and fibrous protein called keratin. The closest layer to the surface has the highest amount of keratin- the outermost layer of skin is dead, it produced too much keratin to function

Fibrous layer of the eyes

Mucous membrane of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems, and ear- thick membrane that prevents pathogens from getting into the circulation

Cilia

489

Gastrulation

Gastrulation is the process in which a blastulais transformed into an embryo with three
tissue layers and body axes

490

Osmosis

Diffusion of water

Depends on number of solute particles present, not the type of particles

If two solutions are separated by a membrane that allows water but not solutes to pass through the water will diffuse of the region of higher water concentration to the region of lower water concentration

(water will go from hypotonic to hypertonic)

491

The small intestine

•  The small intestine is made of three parts: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
•  Bile and pancreatic enzymes are released into the duodenum
•  The circular folds of the small intestine contain finger like projections called villi
•  Villi increase the surface area, space in between called crypt of Lieberk hn
•  Each villus is made of many epithelial cells
•  Each epithelial cell contains microvilli (brush border)- One end of epithelial cell faces the food, one end faces the blood vessel, side that faces food have micro villi

492

Functions of the extracellular matrix

Holds cells together in tissues

Contributes to physical properties of tissue

Helps filter material passing between tissues

Helps orient cell movement

Role in chemical signaling

493

placenta

organ of exchange of nutrients and waste products between the embryo’s and the mother’s blood

494

emission

contractions of smooth muscles in the vasa deferentia and accessory glands move semen into the urethra

495

Photosystem 2

Light energy oxidizes water to oxygen, H+, and electrons

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P680 absorbs at 680 nm (more energetic than P700)

Excited first

496

Roles of Golgi apparatus

Receive proteins from ER and modify them

Concentrate/package/sort proteins before they are sent to their destinations

Sme polysaccharides for plant cell walls are synthesized

497

Rubisco

Enzyme that catalyzes fixation of CO2

Ribosome bisphosphate carboxylase/

Most abundant protein in the world, 50% of the protein in a leaf

498

seminal vesicles

produce about two-thirds of the volume of semen, consisting of mucus, fibrinogen (clotting agent), and fructose as an energy source for the sperm

499

Antenna systems

Pigments arranged in these

Also called light harvesting complexes

500

During gastrulation, three germ layers form

–  The inner germ layer is the endoderm and gives rise to the digestive tract, circulatory tract, and respiratory tract.

–  The outer layer, the ectoderm, gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system.

–  The middle layer, the mesoderm, contributes to bone, muscle, liver, heart, and blood vessels

501

Secondary lysosome

Phagosomes fuse with primary lysosomes to form secondary lysosomes

Enzymes hydrolyze the food molecules

502

Path of zygote

•  Still in the oviduct, the zygote divides to become a blastocyst and continues down the oviduct.

•  In the uterus, the blastocyst attaches to the wall lining called the endometrium.

503

Nucleotides

Monomers of nucleic acid

Pentoses sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen containing base

(without phosphate group called nucleosides)

504

Parasite

Any organism that invades and lives by the expense of another body

Most are animals, either micro or macroscopic

Infects muscles and digestive system takes blood (muscles) and nutrients (liver)

505

How do gases cross the lung/bloodmedia?

Process of diffusion.

Alveoli made of single layered cells, blood capillaries only have tunica intima and some connective tissue, so very thin, and easy process of diffusion

Both the capillaries and the alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium

506

Barriers to infection

Physical barriers

Chemical barriers

Reflexes

507

ovarian cycle

•  The ovarian cycle repeats about every 28 days.
•  A woman’s fertile years total about 450 ovarian cycles. In each cycle in most cases, one oocyte matures and is released.
•  The end of fertility (menopause) occurs at about age 50, and only a few oocytes are left in each ovary.

508

Dunedin

Microtubules cross linked by the spokes of this motor protein

Changes shape when energy is released from ATP, move vesicles toward minus end

509

The immune system

Protects against infection and microbes

Isolates and removes non microbial foreign substances

510

Sterile cotton swab

Collect microorganisms by smearing on surface

Put on a culture dish with solution called tryptic soy agar, which has nutrients that make bacteria reproduce so you can see them

511

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Modified smooth ER, stores calcium

Found around myofibrils

Lateral sacs are the the end segments that release calcium upon stimulation

Calcium released by a series of events

512

The immune system

Protects against infection and microbes

Isolates and removes non microbial foreign substances

513

Gestation

pregnancy

in humans is about 266 days and is divided into trimesters

514

Chemical bond

Attractive force that links atoms together to form molecules

All chemical bonds involve changes in the relationships of electrons one with the other

515

Bone marrow

Produces mulitpotent hematopoietic cell, which in return can be a myeloid or a lymphoid progenitor cel

Stem cells- have not differentiated yet, blood stem cells can become blood cells

516

Boyle's law

Pressure and volume are inversely proportiona

Gases in a container, when volume decreased, pressure increases due to collision of gas molecules and now these gas molecules are confined to a smaller place, so more bombardment

Lungs are always changing in volume so the pressure changes as well with inspiration and expiration

517

First trimester

embryo becomes a fetus

Heart begins to beat by week 4

Limbs form by week 8

The first trimester is the period during which the fetus is most susceptible to damage from radiation, drugs, chemicals, and agents that cause birth defects.

The hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is released after implantation and is an early indicator of pregnancy

518

Inner cell mass

•  The inner cell mass of the blastocyst splits into an epiblast and hypoblast with a fluid-filled cavity in
between (just like the reptilian and avian gastrula).

•  The embryo forms from the epiblast.

•  The epiblast also splits off a layer of cells that form the amnion. The amnion grows around the developing embryo.

•  The hypoblast cells extend to form the chorion. Thechorion and other tissues produce the placenta.

•  The epiblast produces the amnion. Allantoic tissues form the umbilical cord.

519

Pathogens

Parasite

Bacteria

Protist

Fungi

Virus

520

Vasodilation & Increased Permeability

• Histamine causes vasodilation
– increases diameter, Increase in blood flow to infected area
– Redness occurs
– Increase delivery of proteins
– Edema occurs- swelling, fluid from blood cells into interstitial tissue

• increased permeability- proteins gain entry from blood to interstitial fluid

• objective- get more immune cells

521

Fertilization

Fertilization is the union of haploid sperm and haploid egg to produce a single diploid cell, the zygote

522

Negative feedback mechanism

a decrease in function in response to a stimulus

523

Mixed endocrine glands

Thymus, heart, stomach, kidneys, and small intestine

524

The small intestine

•  The small intestine is made of three parts: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
•  Bile and pancreatic enzymes are released into the duodenum
•  The circular folds of the small intestine contain finger like projections called villi
•  Villi increase the surface area, space in between called crypt of Lieberk hn
•  Each villus is made of many epithelial cells
•  Each epithelial cell contains microvilli (brush border)- One end of epithelial cell faces the food, one end faces the blood vessel, side that faces food have micro villi

525

Inner cell mass

•  The inner cell mass of the blastocyst splits into an epiblast and hypoblast with a fluid-filled cavity in
between (just like the reptilian and avian gastrula).

•  The embryo forms from the epiblast.

•  The epiblast also splits off a layer of cells that form the amnion. The amnion grows around the developing embryo.

•  The hypoblast cells extend to form the chorion. Thechorion and other tissues produce the placenta.

•  The epiblast produces the amnion. Allantoic tissues form the umbilical cord.

526

Centrioles

Made of microtubules

Fund in organizing center near the cell nucleus

Similar to basal bodies, but in center of call and help in movement of chromosomes during cell division

527

Duodenum

Receives:

Food from stomach
Important secretions from pancreas
Secretion from liver and gall bladder

Complete absorption will occur here

528

System of respiration

Constant exchange of air: ventilation (tidal volume)

Diffusion- oxygen from lungs to blood

Circulation- bulk transport

Diffusion of oxygen into cells

Cellular respiration

529

Positive feedback system

Things are out of control and we lose stability, things keep increasing and we cannot stop it

Ex: Menstrual cycle, keep producing estrogen and very unstable, also lactation, can continue basically forever

530

Childbirth

•  Passage of the baby is assisted by the mother’s bearing down with her abdominal muscles.

•  Once the baby is clear of the birth canal it canstart breathing and become independent of the mother’s circulation, so the umbilical cord is clamped and cut.

•  Finally, the placenta and fetal membranes are detached from the mother and expelled (several minutes–1 hour)

531

Photosynthesis in noncyclic electron electron transport

Each photosystem consists of several chlorophyll and accessory pigment molecules

Complement each other, must be constantly absorbing light energy to power noncyclic electron transport

532

Path of sperm

•  To achieve fertilization, sperm swim up the vagina, assisted by contractions of the female reproductive tract.

•  The sperm then pass through the cervix and most of the oviduct to the egg (secondary oocyte) in the upper oviduct.

•  Egg and sperm nucleus (both haploid) fuse to produce the diploid zygote.

533

Photosynthesis in noncyclic electron electron transport

Each photosystem consists of several chlorophyll and accessory pigment molecules

Complement each other, must be constantly absorbing light energy to power noncyclic electron transport

534

Allergy

Overactive or disproportionate immune system

Chemicals released

Anti histamine can be used (because histamine is the alarm)

535

Allergy

Overactive or disproportionate immune system

Chemicals released

Anti histamine can be used (because histamine is the alarm)

536

Peripheral membrane proteins

Lack exposed hydrophobic groups, do not penetrate bilayer (stay inside)

537

Bacteria

Unicellular prokaryotes

538

Total energy in any system

Total energy = usable energy + unusable energy

Enthalpy (H)= free energy (G) + entropy (S)

H= G + TS

539

Gastrulation

Gastrulation is the process in which a blastulais transformed into an embryo with three
tissue layers and body axes

540

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin is a metal (iron) that is positively charged, and oxygen negatively charged, so they bind

541

Muscle cell

Excitable cell

Modified plasma membrane known as the sarcolemma

542

Gastrulation

Gastrulation is the process in which a blastulais transformed into an embryo with three
tissue layers and body axes

543

Amniocentesis

extraction of amnioticfluid with a needle, after the fourteenth week of pregnancy

544

Phospholipid movement in the bilayer

Lateral diffusion, flexing, and rotation but no flip flop

545

Action spectrum

Plot of biological activity as a function of exposure to varied wavelengths of light

546

Cyclic electron transport

Electron from excited P700 chlorophyll molecule n photosystem one cycles back to the same chlorophyll molecule

Involves a series of exergonic redox reactions, the released energy creates a proton gradient that is used to synthesize ATP

547

Fungi

Yeast is a unicellular form

Ex: athlete's foot

548

Organization of the immune system

Nonspecific immune response- protects against foreign substances without having to recognize their identity

Specific immune response- highly specific, usually a major problem that your body is really trying to fight

549

Quaternary structure

Interaction of subunits by hydrophobic interactions, van der waals forces, ionic bonds, and hydrogen bonds

Each subunit has its own tertiary structure

550

Chlorophylls a and b

Ring structure with magnesium atom in center

Hydrocarbon tail which anchors them to integral proteins in the thylakoids membrane

Absorb in red and blue region

551

How does photosynthesis convert light energy to chemical energy?

Reaction center converts light energy to chemical energy

Excited chlorophyll a molecule (Chl*) is a reducing agent (electron donor)

A is an acceptor molecule (oxidizing agent)

Chl* + A --> Chl+ + A-

A is the first in a chain of electron carriers on the thylakoid membrane (electron transport) a series of redox reactions

Final electron acceptor is NADP+

NADP+ + e- --> NADPH + H+

552

Amniocentesis

extraction of amnioticfluid with a needle, after the fourteenth week of pregnancy

553

Macrophages in alveoli

Ward against foreign bodies, get rid of debris

554

Pathogens

Parasite

Bacteria

Protist

Fungi

Virus

555

Lipid composition in plasma membranes

Phospholipids vary- fatty acid chain length, degree of saturation, phosphate groups

Can be up to 25 percent cholesterol

556

Fluorescence

When a pigment returns to ground state some of the energy may be given off as heat and some as fluorescence

Fluorescence has longer wavelengths and less energy than the absorbed light energy

No chemical work done

If pigment can pass the energy to another molecule, there's no fluorescence, the energy can be passed to a reaction center where it is converted to chemical energy

557

What Affects Hb-OxygenBinding?

Demands for oxygen changing depending on your state. (if sitting, cells in legs not picking up that much oxygen) so ATP production chants, and more ATP produced the more oxygen you get delivered. Waste products signify how much ATP you are making so your red blood cells know.

•  BPG (2,3 Bisphosphoglyceric acid)- BPG by product of glycolysis- when increases, unload more oxygen.

•  Temperature

•  Acidity- lactic acid is byproduct of fermentation

558

Blastocoel

a central fluid-filled cavity that forms in the ball of cells

The embryo becomes a blastula and its cells are called blastomeres

559

Hyperpolarization

Membrane potential more negative than resting potential

560

Membrane of rod

When light shines at photoreceptor, the protein rhodopsin changes shape and activates, then transducin (protein) breaks off it's complex and moves along the membrane to activate phosphodiesterase, triggering cGMP breakdown, so reduces cGMP level

561

How Are Gases Transported?

•  Once in the blood, oxygen is transported in two ways

–  1.5% is dissolved in the plasma and cytosol of erythrocytes

–  98.5 % Bound to hemoglobin

562

Ingredients for photosynthesis

Co2 reduced to sugars that travel throughout the plant body

Water up taken by roots

Water and oxygen released

563

Resolution

Limiting factor in all microscopes, need high resolution to see detail

564

Cytotoxic T Cell

Release perform and granzymes

Induce apoptosis (Fas)

Attack cancer cells which stop mitosis regulation and keep dividing- they bond to these and release perforins that poke h ones in the membrane, eater can go in, releases granzymes in the hole or proteins that activate apoptosis

565

Chloroplasts

Sites where photosynthesis occurs, one type of plastid

Surrounded by two layers and have interal membrane system

566

Lysosomes

Vesicles containing digestive enzymes that come in part from the Golgi

Sites for breakdown of food and foreign material brought into the cell by phagocytosis

Detection of spent cellular components- autophagy- cell components are frequently destroyed and replaced with new ones

567

During gastrulation, three germ layers form

–  The inner germ layer is the endoderm and gives rise to the digestive tract, circulatory tract, and respiratory tract.

–  The outer layer, the ectoderm, gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system.

–  The middle layer, the mesoderm, contributes to bone, muscle, liver, heart, and blood vessels

568

What properties of water make it so important in biology?

Polar molecule

Forms hydrogen bonds

Has tetrahedral shape

569

Organization of the immune system

Nonspecific immune response- protects against foreign substances without having to recognize their identity

Specific immune response- highly specific, usually a major problem that your body is really trying to fight

570

Path of sperm

•  To achieve fertilization, sperm swim up the vagina, assisted by contractions of the female reproductive tract.

•  The sperm then pass through the cervix and most of the oviduct to the egg (secondary oocyte) in the upper oviduct.

•  Egg and sperm nucleus (both haploid) fuse to produce the diploid zygote.

571

Supraoptic nucleus

Makes vasopressin

Anti diuretic hormone,prevents water loss. Target organ is kidneys where we have water control

572

Chemoreceptors

Homeostatic mechanism: Chemoreceptors constantly measuring level of oxygen and co2, send signal through sensory nerve fibers

Need increased inspiration during exercise, or if holding breath (decrease oxygen availability and increase co2 availability)

•  Peripheral
–  Carotid bodies
–  Aortic bodies

•  Central- within nervous system, medulla oblongata

573

Repolarization

When a membrane potential has been depolarized or hyperpolarized and returns to its resting value

574

Polar covalent bond

One atom has more electronegativity

575

Macrophages in alveoli

Ward against foreign bodies, get rid of debris

576

Heart beat

The closing of one set of valves after another

577

Depolarization

Membrane potential is less negative an resting potential

578

Photosynthetic prokaryotes

Some bacteria, including Cyanobacteria can do carry on photosynthesis

Plasma membrane is unfolded and has chlorophyll

579

Inner cell mass

•  The inner cell mass of the blastocyst splits into an epiblast and hypoblast with a fluid-filled cavity in
between (just like the reptilian and avian gastrula).

•  The embryo forms from the epiblast.

•  The epiblast also splits off a layer of cells that form the amnion. The amnion grows around the developing embryo.

•  The hypoblast cells extend to form the chorion. Thechorion and other tissues produce the placenta.

•  The epiblast produces the amnion. Allantoic tissues form the umbilical cord.

580

Myeloid progenitor cells

Blood/platelets or immune cells produced

Types of immune cells:

Granular cells- neutrophils, mast cells

agranular cells- monocytes, macrophages,

581

Mechanisms of Valve Action

Shaped to prevent the back flow of blood

582

trophoblast

•  In mammals, the first extraembryonic membrane to form is the trophoblast.

•  When the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida, the trophoblast cells attach to the uterine wall, This is the beginning of implantation.

•  The trophoblast becomes part of the uterine wall, and sends out villi to increase surface area and contact with maternal blood.

583

Blood

Made of cellular components, erythrocytes(red blood cells, carry oxygen), leukocytes, and platelets (minimize blood loss and promote blood plotting) suspended in a plasma fluid

Plasma contains water and proteins (hormones, ions, glucose, amino acids etc)

Only fluid like connective tissue, 90% water. Fluid and cellular component

584

Chemical structure of hormones

•  Hormones can be made of steroids or peptides
•  Their synthesis and secretion vary
•  Their chemical structure determines their mechanisms of action on target cells

585

Starch

Storage of glucose in plants
Branched

586

The Stomach

•  Located between the esophagus and the small intestine

•  Starts the digestion of proteins, constantly mixing the food to mix it with enzymes and secretions

•  Functions in gastric mixing and gastric emptying

• Large temporary storage area

• Top gastroesophagael sphincter and bottom pyloric sphincter that slowly allows food into the duodenum

587

Photosynthesis in noncyclic electron electron transport

Each photosystem consists of several chlorophyll and accessory pigment molecules

Complement each other, must be constantly absorbing light energy to power noncyclic electron transport

588

Boyle's law

Pressure and volume are inversely proportiona

Gases in a container, when volume decreased, pressure increases due to collision of gas molecules and now these gas molecules are confined to a smaller place, so more bombardment

Lungs are always changing in volume so the pressure changes as well with inspiration and expiration

589

Chemoreceptors

Homeostatic mechanism: Chemoreceptors constantly measuring level of oxygen and co2, send signal through sensory nerve fibers

Need increased inspiration during exercise, or if holding breath (decrease oxygen availability and increase co2 availability)

•  Peripheral
–  Carotid bodies
–  Aortic bodies

•  Central- within nervous system, medulla oblongata

590

The Stomach

•  Located between the esophagus and the small intestine

•  Starts the digestion of proteins, constantly mixing the food to mix it with enzymes and secretions

•  Functions in gastric mixing and gastric emptying

• Large temporary storage area

• Top gastroesophagael sphincter and bottom pyloric sphincter that slowly allows food into the duodenum

591

Stoma

Mouth of plant

Co2 enters and O2/water exit through these pores

592

Components of the cytoskeleton

Microfilaments

Intermediate filaments

Microtubules

593

Phagocytic cell migration

• The cytokines released by macrophages signal the endothelial cells to express selectin

• Margination occurs- dock and fuse with membrane, carbohydrate ligands on macrophages bind to selectin in blood vessel, move in blood vessel by rolling

• Phagocytic cells produce integrin on their membrane

• Stronger attachment occurs- immune cells are allowed to slow down and exit

• Phagocytic cells begin to move from the blood to the infected area in a process known as diapedisis

• Once in the interstitial fluid, phagocytic cells are attracted to the site of injury by chemotaxins- tell phagocytic cells exactly where to go

594

Viagra

first introduced for heart problems, sexual excitation, want blood to flow to the penis faster than it flows out, need dilation of blood vessels which requires neurotransmitter nitrous oxide, produces a dilation of the blood vessels. If excessive production of phosphodiesterase, it breaks down nitrous oxide. But Viagra inhibits phosphodiesterase, that can cause problems with vision and the breakdown of cyclic gmp

595

Equilibrium

Particles continue to move but there is no net change in distribution

Net movement is directional until equilibrium is reached

596

Allergy

Overactive or disproportionate immune system

Chemicals released

Anti histamine can be used (because histamine is the alarm)

597

Chromatin

Diffuse or long thin fibers in which DNA is bound to proteins

Prior to cell division these condense and form chromosomes

598

CO2 fixation

CO2 is reduced to carbohydrates

Enzymes in the stroma use the energy in ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2

Because the ATP and NADPH are not "stockpiled," these light independent reactions must also take place in light

599

Gastric Mucosa

•  Mucosa cells
–  Release mucus, watery solution with salt ions, basic chemicals to neutralize acid and make it less harmful to stomach

•  Chief cells
–  Release pepsinogen, enzyme that can break down proteins but it's not activated, needs highly acidic environment

•  Parietal cells
–  Release HCl, and Intrinsic factor (absorption of vitamins, B12)

600

Blastocyst

When blastula reaches 16 to 32 cells, it divides into two groups:

•  Inner cell mass: becomes the embryo

•  Trophoblast: a sac that forms from the outer cells. Its cells secrete fluid and create the blastocoel, with the inner cell mass at one end. Embryo is now called a blastocyst.

601

G3P

Gylceraldehyde 3 phosphate

5/6 recycled into RuBP

1/6 converted to starch and sucrose to make glucose and fructose

602

Photosynthesis

"synthesis from light"

Plants take in CO2, produce carbohydrates, and release O2 and water

Light is required

6CO2 + 12H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

603

Fertilization

Fertilization is the union of haploid sperm and haploid egg to produce a single diploid cell, the zygote

604

Phagocytosis

Food molecules enter the cell through a formed phagosome

605

Steps in neurulation

•  The ectoderm over the notochord thickens and forms the neural plate.

•  Edges of the neural plate fold and a deep groove forms.

•  The folds fuse, forming the neural tube and a layer of ectoderm, The anterior end of the neural tube becomes the brain, the rest becomes the spinal cord

606

Vasodilation & Increased Permeability

• Histamine causes vasodilation
– increases diameter, Increase in blood flow to infected area
– Redness occurs
– Increase delivery of proteins
– Edema occurs- swelling, fluid from blood cells into interstitial tissue

• increased permeability- proteins gain entry from blood to interstitial fluid

• objective- get more immune cells

607

Cytotoxic T Cell

Release perform and granzymes

Induce apoptosis (Fas)

Attack cancer cells which stop mitosis regulation and keep dividing- they bond to these and release perforins that poke h ones in the membrane, eater can go in, releases granzymes in the hole or proteins that activate apoptosis

608

Cytotoxic T Cell

Release perform and granzymes

Induce apoptosis (Fas)

Attack cancer cells which stop mitosis regulation and keep dividing- they bond to these and release perforins that poke h ones in the membrane, eater can go in, releases granzymes in the hole or proteins that activate apoptosis

609

Branching of the airways

Conducting zone: trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles

Respiratory zone: respiratory bronchioles, alveoli (each alveolus is covered with many capillaries to facilitate the exchange of materials)

610

Chromatin

Diffuse or long thin fibers in which DNA is bound to proteins

Prior to cell division these condense and form chromosomes

611

Blastocyst

When blastula reaches 16 to 32 cells, it divides into two groups:

•  Inner cell mass: becomes the embryo

•  Trophoblast: a sac that forms from the outer cells. Its cells secrete fluid and create the blastocoel, with the inner cell mass at one end. Embryo is now called a blastocyst.

612

Chlorophylls a and b

Ring structure with magnesium atom in center

Hydrocarbon tail which anchors them to integral proteins in the thylakoids membrane

Absorb in red and blue region

613

Somites

separate, segmented blocks of cells on either side of the neural tube.

Muscle, cartilage, bone, and lower layer of the skin form from somites.

Neural crest cells are guided by somites to develop into peripheral nerves and other structures

614

Endotherm in heat

Sweat and vasal dilation in heat, metabolic reaction

Body temperature remains the same even though it is getting hotter

615

epididymis

•  From the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, sperm move to the epididymis, a storage sac, where theymature.

•  The epididymis connects to the urethra via the vas deferens

616

Mixed endocrine glands

Thymus, heart, stomach, kidneys, and small intestine

617

Stroma

Fluid in which grana are suspended in chloroplasts

618

Saccharides

Simple sugars, monomers of carbohydrates

Di- 2
Oligo- 3-20
Poly- hundreds of thousands

619

What Affects Hb-OxygenBinding?

Demands for oxygen changing depending on your state. (if sitting, cells in legs not picking up that much oxygen) so ATP production chants, and more ATP produced the more oxygen you get delivered. Waste products signify how much ATP you are making so your red blood cells know.

•  BPG (2,3 Bisphosphoglyceric acid)- BPG by product of glycolysis- when increases, unload more oxygen.

•  Temperature

•  Acidity- lactic acid is byproduct of fermentation

620

Reversible inhibition

Inhibitor bonds noncovalently to the active site and prevents subtrate from binding- competitive inhibitor

When concentration of inhibitor is reduced it detaches from the active site

621

Electroreceptors

Perceives natural electrical stimuli

622

AP Step 6

Membrane hyperpolarizes and refractory period occurs

VGPC starts to close, but closes too slowly (around -80) so it dips below threshold

623

Allergy

Overactive or disproportionate immune system

Chemicals released

Anti histamine can be used (because histamine is the alarm)

624

Photophosphorylation

Light driven production of ATP

H+ transported via electron carriers across the thylakoid membrane from the stroma into the lumen, creating an electrochemical gradient

625

Complement system

Pore formation: First complement protein (inactive), cascade of protein activation in bacterial cell

Swelling: fluid rushes into cells

Lysis

626

Ingredients for photosynthesis

Co2 reduced to sugars that travel throughout the plant body

Water up taken by roots

Water and oxygen released

627

Pulmonary trunk

Takes deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs

Very big, can see with naked eye.

Splits, and goes to two lungs

628

Transmural pressure

The pressure difference between two membranes

629

Calvin cycle stimulated by light

Protons pumped form stroma into thylakoids, increasing the pH which favors the activation of rubisco

Electron flow from photosystem one reduces disulfide bonds to activate calvin cycle enzymes

630

Induced fit

Enzyes change shape when they bind to the substrate

631

First trimester

embryo becomes a fetus

Heart begins to beat by week 4

Limbs form by week 8

The first trimester is the period during which the fetus is most susceptible to damage from radiation, drugs, chemicals, and agents that cause birth defects.

The hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is released after implantation and is an early indicator of pregnancy

632

Ventricular diastole

heart is in relaxed state and ventricles are filling up its blood coming from the left and right atrium

Blood aided by gravity (80%) before atria even contracts

Aortic and pulmonary valves are closed

Bicuspid and tricuspid valves are open

633

Isotonic solution

Equal water and solute concentration

634

Lipids absorption

•  Can easily permeate through the plasma membrane, tightly controlled so it doesn't pass freely, bile salt packages glycerol and fatty acids into micelles - lipoprotein vehicle that is hydrophilic on the outside and hydrophobic on the inside, allows it to move into the small intestine cells

•  Once micelles approach the apical side of the epithelial cell membrane, the glycerol and fatty acid passively diffuse into the cell

•  The glycerol and fatty acid are then resynthesized into triglycerides and packaged into a lipoprotein known as chylomicrons- large vesicles that cannot fit into the capillaries, does not go into the blood immediately

•  Chylomicrons are then exocytosed into the lymphatic system which has fluid in its own circulation and vessels that are more permeable, eventually drain into superior vena cava and ends up in circulation, liver sorts and ships these lipids

635

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone

Increases rate of metabolism

Target cell: thyroid gland

636

Fluid mosaic model

General structure of membranes

Phospholipids form a bilayer which is like a lakes which proteins float

637

Barriers to infection

Physical barriers

Chemical barriers

Reflexes

638

Red eye

A lot of light goes into eye because pupils cannot dilate in time, some light is refracted back

639

Parts of the respiratory system

Nasal/oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary/secondary/tertiary bronchus, bronchioles (if you don't need a lot of oxygen bronchioles are slightly constricted), alveoli (site of exchange)

All made of cartilage up to the trachea

640

The immune system

Protects against infection and microbes

Isolates and removes non microbial foreign substances

641

Endotherm

All mammals and birds regulate body temperature by generating metabolic heatand/or preventing heat loss

642

Light independent reactions

"dark reactions"

Use ATP and NADH from light reactions plus CO2 to produce carbohydrates (because coenzymes ATP and NADH are not stored, need light for light reaction first)

643

Chlorophylls a and b

Ring structure with magnesium atom in center

Hydrocarbon tail which anchors them to integral proteins in the thylakoids membrane

Absorb in red and blue region

644

Two functions of DNA

Can reproduce itself (replication)

Can copy its information into RNA (transcription), RNA can specify a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide (translation)

645

Nonspecific immunity

Prevention

Attack- if it gets in the circulatory system

646

Dunedin

Microtubules cross linked by the spokes of this motor protein

Changes shape when energy is released from ATP, move vesicles toward minus end

647

Ovarian cycle steps

1- primary oocytes (2n) are present in the ovary at birth

2- about once a month, between puberty and menopause, 6-12 primary oocytes begin to mature. A primary oocyte and it's surrounding cells is called a follicle

3- the developing oocyte is nourished by follicle cells which also produce estrogen

4- after one week, usually only one primary oocyte begins to develop. A meiotic division just before ovulation creates the secondary oocyte (n). First polar body

5- at ovulation on the 14th day, the follicle ruptures and releases the egg which is caught by the Fallopian t uses

6- remaining follicle cells create the corpus lutenum, which produces progesterone and estrogen

7-if pregnancy does not occur, the corpus lutenum degenerates

648

How do atoms bond to form molecules

Reactive atoms have unpaired electrons in their outermost shell, atoms share, gain, or lose electrons

649

Z scheme

Model of noncyclic electron transport

Extracts electrons from water and transfers them to NADPH, using energy from photosynthesis one and two and resulting in ATP synthesis

Yields ATP, NADPH, and O2

650

Cyclic electron transport

Electron from excited P700 chlorophyll molecule n photosystem one cycles back to the same chlorophyll molecule

Involves a series of exergonic redox reactions, the released energy creates a proton gradient that is used to synthesize ATP

651

Barriers to infection

Physical barriers

Chemical barriers

Reflexes

652

How are neurons classified?

Function- sensory, interneurons, motor neurons

Structure- multipolar, bipolar, unipolar

653

Chemical equilibrium

Relative concentrations of A and B are such that forward and reverse reactions take place at the same rate

No further net change, but reactions continue

The further a reaction goes toward completion in order to reach equilibrium, the greater amount of free energy released

654

Double helix

Two strands of DNA molecule form this

All have this structure so diversity is in the sequence of base pairs, info encoded in this sequence

655

Parasite

Any organism that invades and lives by the expense of another body

Most are animals, either micro or macroscopic

Infects muscles and digestive system takes blood (muscles) and nutrients (liver)

656

CO2 fixation

CO2 is reduced to carbohydrates

Enzymes in the stroma use the energy in ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2

Because the ATP and NADPH are not "stockpiled," these light independent reactions must also take place in light

657

Phagocytosis

Attatchment (opsonization)- Physically bind to pathogen

Internalization, turns into phagosome

Degradation- Fuses with lysosome and becomes phagolysosome, and after the digestive enzymes can be reused

Exocytosis- elimination of debris

658

Selective permeability

Membranes allow some substances to pass through but not others

659

Fatty acid

Non polar hydrocarbon with a polar carboxyl group

Ampipathic- opposing chemical properties, when carboxyl group ionizes it forms COO- and H+ and is hydrophilic while the other end is hydrophobic

660

Compliance

Ability to change volume and pressure

Balloon is like the lungs- highly compliant

Paper bag- not compliant

661

How do arteries move blood?

Arteries have high pressure, and blood aided by gravity so blood can reach far such as feet

662

Photophosphorylation

Light driven production of ATP

H+ transported via electron carriers across the thylakoid membrane from the stroma into the lumen, creating an electrochemical gradient

663

Blastocyst

When blastula reaches 16 to 32 cells, it divides into two groups:

•  Inner cell mass: becomes the embryo

•  Trophoblast: a sac that forms from the outer cells. Its cells secrete fluid and create the blastocoel, with the inner cell mass at one end. Embryo is now called a blastocyst.

664

Focusing on distant objects

Ciliary muscles are attached in a circular way, so when they are relaxed the lens is stretched

This pulls zonular fibers

Lens is elongated and flat to focus on distant objects

665

Barriers to infection

Physical barriers

Chemical barriers

Reflexes

666

Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

•  The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by secreting hypophysiotropic hormones (releasing hormones)
–  Dopamine (DA)
–  Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
–  Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
–  Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
–  Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)–  Somatostatin (SS)

667

How do veins move blood?

low pressure because at the end of that circuit, hold the majority of blood, and if the blood is going back up it is working against gravity, dead on skeletal muscles

Skeletal muscle pump- veins are in between muscles and contraction pumps blood, valves in veins prevent blood from coming back down when muscles relax

668

Centrioles

Made of microtubules

Fund in organizing center near the cell nucleus

Similar to basal bodies, but in center of call and help in movement of chromosomes during cell division

669

Peristaltic contraction

Unidirectional movement of food through the stomach

670

Myeloid progenitor cells

Blood/platelets or immune cells produced

Types of immune cells:

Granular cells- neutrophils, mast cells

agranular cells- monocytes, macrophages,

671

GnRH

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

Stimulates release of FSH/LH

672

Cellular respiration

Production of ATP

673

Pressure change

Breathing associated with skeletal muscles that are constantly contracting and relaxing, gases are quantified by pressur

Atmospheric pressure (Patm)- pressure on the outside in the environment

Alveolar pressure (Palv)-pressure inside your lungs

Intrapleural pressure (Pip)- pressure in pleural sac, fills up with fluid that exerts pressure

Alveolar and interpleural pressure are constantly fluctuating because they depend on your state

674

Absorption spectrum

Plot of wavelengths absorbed by a pigment

675

Steps of fertilization

–  The sperm and egg recognize each other.
–  The sperm is activated so that it can gain access to the plasma membrane of the egg.
–  The plasma membranes of the sperm and egg fuse.
–  The egg blocks entry of additional sperm.
–  The egg is stimulated to start development.
–  The egg and sperm nuclei fuse

676

The female reproductive cycle actually consists of two linked cycles:

an ovarian cycle that produces eggs and hormones and a uterine cycle that prepares the endometrium for the arrival of a blastocyst

677

Glycoproteins

Carbohydrate and protein

678

Smooth ER

Ribosome free region

679

Mechanisms of peptide action

Peptide- hydrophillic, so receptor in membrane because it cannot permeate inside the cell

When receptor bound to hormone become activated, associates with/activates membrane communication protein called g protein made of multiple subunits

alpha subunit moves along membrane and activates adenylyl cyclase and coverts a molecule in into cyclic AMP

triggers a cascade of activation in proteins (protein kinase A activated, particular protein phosphorylates and changes shape protein shape and function altered, brings about cellular reponse)

A lot quicker but local changes

680

Mitochondrial matrix

Region enclosed by inner membrane

Krebs or citric acid cycle takes place here

681

epididymis

•  From the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, sperm move to the epididymis, a storage sac, where theymature.

•  The epididymis connects to the urethra via the vas deferens

682

Covalent bonds

Atoms share one or more electrons so that the outer shells are filled

683

Air composition

78.1% nitrogen (goes into lungs and leaves), 20.9% oxygen

Total atmospheric pressure= 760 mmHg (Pressure= concentration)- Patm = PN2 + PO2

Temperature and altitude changes atmospheric pressure

Partial pressure of N2 = 760 mmHg x 0.781 ~ 600 mmHg

Partial pressure of O2 = 760 mmHg x 0.21 ~ 160mmHg

We breathe very easily, so partial pressure in lungs should be lower, so process of diffusion is easy. 100 mm mercury

684

Action spectrum

Plot of biological activity as a function of exposure to varied wavelengths of light

685

Renal system

Proteins help make energy only in very bad situation, but protein metabolism generates urea which is toxic, excreted through renal system (kidneys)

686

Nuclear envelope

Formed by two lipid bilayers

687

Processes in Calvin Benson cycle

Fixation of CO2 by combination with RuBP (catalyzes by rubisco)

Conversion of fixed CO2 into carbohydrate G3P (using ATP and NADPH)

Regeneration of CO2 acceptor RuBP by ATP

688

Macromolecules crossing membranes

Too large to cross the membrane, so they can be taken in or secreted by membrane vesicles

689

uterine cycle

•  The uterine cycle parallels the ovarian cycle and involves the buildup, then breakdown, of the endometrium.

•  About five days into the ovarian cycle, the endometrium builds in preparation for the blastocyst.

•  About five days after ovulation, the uterus is maximally prepared and stays that way for another nine days.

•  If the blastocyst does not arrive by then, the endometrium breaks down and sloughs off during menstruation.

690

Morula

the embryo as a solid ball ofsmall cells. (from Latin for mulberry)

691

Thylakoids

The way internal membranes are arranged in chloroplasts, thylakoids make stacks called grana

These membranes contain chlorophyll and other pigments

692

Physical barriers

Skin- brick layers of cells, most pathogens can't get through it, also produces a hard and fibrous protein called keratin. The closest layer to the surface has the highest amount of keratin- the outermost layer of skin is dead, it produced too much keratin to function

Fibrous layer of the eyes

Mucous membrane of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems, and ear- thick membrane that prevents pathogens from getting into the circulation

Cilia

693

Lobes of the brain

Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital
Cerebellum

694

AP step 1

At rest both VGSC and VGPC are closed, but you still have the leak channels and the pump

695

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

Hypothalamus- releases CRH, is always in control by measuring the amount of cortisol, if levels are below the set point, mechanism is turned on to increase cortisol

Anterior pituitary- acted on by hypothalamus, stimulates release of ACTH, travels in circulation

Adrenal cortex- stimulated to release another hormone called cortisol which helps our body deal with long term stress (external factor that causes major changes in your body) body thinks starvation is happening and there is not enough energy, so cortisols major function is to make sure your brain is well protected and that it had adequate amount of energy available

Increases plasma concentration of glucose (for the use of the brain, muscles can't use it) fatty acids, and amino acids (for the muscles as an energy replacement for glucose)

696

Right and left ventricle

pumping chambers, physically contracting to make the blood exit (simultaneously in both circuits)

697

The immune system

Protects against infection and microbes

Isolates and removes non microbial foreign substances

698

Thylakoids

The way internal membranes are arranged in chloroplasts, thylakoids make stacks called grana

These membranes contain chlorophyll and other pigments

699

Polymers

Formed by covalent linkages of smaller units called monomers

700

Connection between lungs and circulatory system

Closed connection between heart and lungs because lungs are the site for oxygen intake, circulatory picks up oxygen from lungs and delivers it to cells with heart as intermediate

701

Pathogens

Parasite

Bacteria

Protist

Fungi

Virus

702

Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells

Key to eukaryotic cell function

Each organelle/ compartment has specific role defined by chemical processes

Membranes surrounding these molecules keep away inappropriate molecules and also act as traffic regulators for raw materials into and out of the organelle

703

CO2 fixation

CO2 is reduced to carbohydrates

Enzymes in the stroma use the energy in ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2

Because the ATP and NADPH are not "stockpiled," these light independent reactions must also take place in light

704

Spina bifida

failure of the neural tube to fuse in a posterior region dueto vitamin B deficiency

705

Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells

Key to eukaryotic cell function

Each organelle/ compartment has specific role defined by chemical processes

Membranes surrounding these molecules keep away inappropriate molecules and also act as traffic regulators for raw materials into and out of the organelle

706

Pressure and Volume Change

During inspiration the volume of the lungs increases and the pressure decreases- atmospheric pressure is higher than alveolar pressure, and diffusion can occur


During expiration, the volume of the lungs decreases and the pressure increases- alveolar pressure becomes higher than atmospheric pressure- diffusion outwards

707

Blastomere

•  Blastomeres become determined, or committed toa specific fate, at different times in different animals.

•  Roundworm and clam blastomeres are already determined at the 8-cell stage.

•  If one cell is removed, a portion of the embryo fails to develop normally. This is called mosaic development.

•  Humans have regulative development. If some cells are lost during cleavage, other cells can compensate. For genetic testing in humans, one cell can be removed from a blastula following in vitro fertilization. If there are no mutations in the gene of interest, that blastula can be implanted

708

Accessory Digestive Organs

Food does not get to them but there is important secretion

•  Salivary glands
–  Sublingual (under tongue), submandibular (under mandible), parotid (gland by ear
•  Pancreas
•  Liver
•  Gallbladder

709

Parts of the respiratory system

Nasal/oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary/secondary/tertiary bronchus, bronchioles (if you don't need a lot of oxygen bronchioles are slightly constricted), alveoli (site of exchange)

All made of cartilage up to the trachea

710

Gated channels

Can be closed or open to ion passage, most ion channels are gated

Gate opens when protein is stimulated to change shape

Stimulus can be molecule (ligand gated) or electrical charge resulting from many ions (voltage gated)

711

Macrophages in alveoli

Ward against foreign bodies, get rid of debris

712

Absorption spectrum

Plot of wavelengths absorbed by a pigment

713

DNA bases

Adenine/guanine = purines

Cytocine/thymine = pyrimidines

A-T and C-G, bond by hydrogen bonding

714

Connect of artery to vein

Artery, arteriole, capillaries, venue, vein

715

The pancreas

•  Mixed gland that contain both endocrine and exocrine tissue

•  The exocrine tissue contains two types of cells
-Duct cells secrete NaHCO3 and Bicarbonate release to neutralize acid
-Acina cells secrete pancreatic juice- Mixture of enzymes that are produced from pancreas

716

Myeloid progenitor cells

Blood/platelets or immune cells produced

Types of immune cells:

Granular cells- neutrophils, mast cells

agranular cells- monocytes, macrophages,

717

Gestation

pregnancy

in humans is about 266 days and is divided into trimesters

718

Blastomere

•  Blastomeres become determined, or committed toa specific fate, at different times in different animals.

•  Roundworm and clam blastomeres are already determined at the 8-cell stage.

•  If one cell is removed, a portion of the embryo fails to develop normally. This is called mosaic development.

•  Humans have regulative development. If some cells are lost during cleavage, other cells can compensate. For genetic testing in humans, one cell can be removed from a blastula following in vitro fertilization. If there are no mutations in the gene of interest, that blastula can be implanted

719

Catalysts

Speed up rate of reaction

Not altered by the reaction

Most biological catalysts are enzymes that act as a framework in which reactions can take place

No catalyst maks a reaction occur that cannot otherwise occur

720

Oogenesis steps

Female germ cell (2n)

Mitosis

Oogonium (2n)

Mitosis

Primary oocyte (2n)

First meiotic division

Secondary oocyte (n) and first polar body

Second meiotic division, independent assortment of chromosomes

Ootid (n) and second polar body

Ovum (egg) (n), polar bodies degrade

721

Calvin cycle stimulated by light

Protons pumped form stroma into thylakoids, increasing the pH which favors the activation of rubisco

Electron flow from photosystem one reduces disulfide bonds to activate calvin cycle enzymes

722

Lymphoid tissues

Adenoids, tonsils, thymus, lymph noes, spleen, bone marrow, lymphatic vessels

Immune cells originate here, majorly from bone marrow

immune cells are scattered all over, but they are clustered in certain areas in case of infection

723

Fungi

Yeast is a unicellular form

Ex: athlete's foot

724

Photosynthetic prokaryotes

Some bacteria, including Cyanobacteria can do carry on photosynthesis

Plasma membrane is unfolded and has chlorophyll

725

Neural pathway of hearing

Cochlear nerve fibers synapse on neurons in the cochlear nuclei in the medulla oblongata

Signal then sent to the thalamus (medial geniculate nucleus)

From thalamus, info travels to the auditory cortex of the temporal lobe

726

Most common phospholipids

Derived from glycerol except for sphingomylein

727

Two systems of electron transport

Non cyclic electron transport- produces NADPH and ATP

Cyclic electron transport- produces ATP only

* when you need more sugar you need more ATP than NADH, so cyclic transport is needed

728

The immune system

Protects against infection and microbes

Isolates and removes non microbial foreign substances

729

Non polar covalent bond

Share electrons equally

730

Immunization

Series of shots

MMR- immunization shot against meals, mumps, rubella

Small quantity of pathogens to build immune response, memory cells to speed up recovery next time

731

Ruben and kamen

Used radioisotope tracers (O18 and O16) to determine that water was the source of O2 released during photosynthesis rather than CO2

732

Glucose

Monosaccharide
All cells use it as an energy source
Exists most often in a ring as alpha or beta glucose depending on position of the aldehyde group (can also be found in a chain)

733

Kinesin

Motor protein, moves toward plus end

734

CO2 fixation

CO2 is reduced to carbohydrates

Enzymes in the stroma use the energy in ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2

Because the ATP and NADPH are not "stockpiled," these light independent reactions must also take place in light

735

Lungs and the mechanisms of the chest

Easy, effortless to breath because of the mechanics of the lungs- always slightly inflated to make inspiration easier

Lungs attached to chest wall and inner layer of your rib cage by very thin set of membranes called a pleural sac

Ribs protect your lungs and work in synchrony with them, chest expands and increase in volume along with your lungs

736

The endocrine system

• Major communication system
• Consists of many glands located throughout the body
• Glands secrete hormones that act as chemical messengers
• Uses the blood as a medium to transport the hormones
• Each hormone has specific target cells
•Hormonal mechanisms can help us maintain homeostasis

737

The liver

•  Hepatocytes of the liver release bile salts that functions in fat emulsification, hydrophobic lipids aggregate together, lipase cannot do its function without bile to emulsify the fat
–  The break down of large fat droplets into smaller ones

•  Bile salts are stored in the gall bladder

738

Action spectrum

Plot of biological activity as a function of exposure to varied wavelengths of light

739

Vacuoles

In plant and protist cells

Store waste products and toxic compounds; some may deter herbivores

Provides structure for plant cells, water enters by osmosis and creates turbot pressure

Stores anthocyanins(pigment) in flowers/fruit to attract pollinators

Digestive enzymes to hydrolyze stored food for early growth

740

Amniocentesis

extraction of amnioticfluid with a needle, after the fourteenth week of pregnancy

741

Phagocytic cell migration

• The cytokines released by macrophages signal the endothelial cells to express selectin

• Margination occurs- dock and fuse with membrane, carbohydrate ligands on macrophages bind to selectin in blood vessel, move in blood vessel by rolling

• Phagocytic cells produce integrin on their membrane

• Stronger attachment occurs- immune cells are allowed to slow down and exit

• Phagocytic cells begin to move from the blood to the infected area in a process known as diapedisis

• Once in the interstitial fluid, phagocytic cells are attracted to the site of injury by chemotaxins- tell phagocytic cells exactly where to go

742

Lymphoid progenitor cells

Form into B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes

743

Nonspecific immunity

Prevention

Attack- if it gets in the circulatory system

744

Turgor pressure

Plant cells with rigid walls build up internal pressure that keeps more water from entering

745

Inner cell mass

•  The inner cell mass of the blastocyst splits into an epiblast and hypoblast with a fluid-filled cavity in
between (just like the reptilian and avian gastrula).

•  The embryo forms from the epiblast.

•  The epiblast also splits off a layer of cells that form the amnion. The amnion grows around the developing embryo.

•  The hypoblast cells extend to form the chorion. Thechorion and other tissues produce the placenta.

•  The epiblast produces the amnion. Allantoic tissues form the umbilical cord.

746

Nucleus

Contains most of the cells DNA and is the site of DNA duplication to support cell reproduction

Plays role in DNA control of cell activities

747

Flagella

Come in ones and twos, longer than cilia

748

Nodes of ranvier

Gaps in myelin sheaths along the axon

749

Protist

Uni or multicellular, contaminate lakes and drinking water to invade host

750

Monosaccharide absorption

•  Glucose and galactose are absorbed by secondary active transport, takes glucose independent of concentration from the lumen to the inside of the epithelial cells

•  They leave the cells into the plasma (blood vessels)via carrier proteins passively by facilitated diffusion, majority stored in liver and muscles

751

Mast cells

• Mast cells are found throughout connective tissues (not found in blood)

• They release histamine and other chemicals involved in inflammation

752

Microcirculation

Traveling of arterioles to capillaries to venules

Cells are taking the oxygen and glucose and dumping co2 by process of diffusion

753

Gastrulation

Gastrulation is the process in which a blastulais transformed into an embryo with three
tissue layers and body axes

754

Extracellular destruction: complement

• Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
– Embeds itself in the microbe membrane, forming pores
– Water and salt enter the microbe

Proteins released by liver to do the job: complement system

755

Nucleus

Contains most of the cells DNA and is the site of DNA duplication to support cell reproduction

Plays role in DNA control of cell activities

756

Myeloid progenitor cells

Blood/platelets or immune cells produced

Types of immune cells:

Granular cells- neutrophils, mast cells

agranular cells- monocytes, macrophages,

757

Air composition

78.1% nitrogen (goes into lungs and leaves), 20.9% oxygen

Total atmospheric pressure= 760 mmHg (Pressure= concentration)- Patm = PN2 + PO2

Temperature and altitude changes atmospheric pressure

Partial pressure of N2 = 760 mmHg x 0.781 ~ 600 mmHg

Partial pressure of O2 = 760 mmHg x 0.21 ~ 160mmHg

We breathe very easily, so partial pressure in lungs should be lower, so process of diffusion is easy. 100 mm mercury

758

Pacemaker cells

•  Sinoatrial node (SA) located in the right atrium

•  Atrioventricular node (AV) located on the interatrial septum

•  Bundle of His: located on the interventicular septum

•  Bundle branches

•  Purkinje fibers: located on the ventricular walls

759

Gestation

pregnancy

in humans is about 266 days and is divided into trimesters

760

Light

A form of electromagnetic radiation

Propagated as waves, energy of light is inversely proportional to wavelength (must be appropriate wavelength to be absorbed by receptive molecules

Light also behaves as particles called photons, plants absorb these

761

Tertiary structure

Many bonds:
Covalent disulfide bridges
Hydrophobic side chain interactions
Van der waals forces
Ionic bonds
Hydrogen bonds

762

Protist

Uni or multicellular, contaminate lakes and drinking water to invade host

763

Nonspecific Immune response/inflammation

• Occurs through cut or injury to the skin

• Sequence of events ensue to protect the body against infection
– Phagocytosis and recruitment
– Vasodilation and increase in permeability
– Phagocytic cells migration
– Tissue repair

764

Isotonic solution

Equal water and solute concentration

765

Macromolecules

Giant polymers, molecular weight usually greater than 1000 daltons

All form through condensation reactions where water is removed during bond formation

766

Control of breathing

Voluntary until it becomes physiologically dangerous, your brain will force you to breathe.

•  Inspiration is initiated by stimulating the respiratory muscles
–  Diaphragm and external intercostals

•  The stimulation is initiated in the medullary centers and the pons

Medulla oblongata sends signal to spinal cord, phrenic nerve sends action potential to diaphragm. 100% controlled by brain unless you voluntarily change it, stimulation always occurring. Neurons called central patter generator, send action potentials then they stop, perfectly synced on/off mechanism

767

Pinocytosis

"cell drinking"

Vesicles for,s to bring small dissolved substances or fluids into a cell, much smaller vesicles than in phagocytosis

Constant in endothelial cells

768

Movement from capillaries into interstitial fluid

Small things such as ions, glucose, amino acids can move through slits

Small proteins need to move by transcytosis (endo and exo cytosis)

Large proteins cannot get through

769

Accommodation

Changing the shape of the lens

Ciliary muscles allow objects to be focused onto the retina no matter how near or distant they are, light rays need to fall on the retina

Lens can change shape

770

Energy transfer and electron transport

Light energy absorbed by antenna chlorophylls, and passed on to reaction center

Molecule goes to excited state

Energized electron from chlorophyll molecules passed to electron acceptor to reduce it

771

Phagocytosis & Recruitment

• Macrophages in the nearby tissue detect bacteria using receptor proteins to engulf them
• Macrophages release cytokines- chemicals for recruitment
• Mast cells release histamine- causes vasodilation
• Injured cells release chemotaxins- chemo attractants to attract immune cells

772

Microbes

Harmful substances, living or dead

773

Spina bifida

failure of the neural tube to fuse in a posterior region dueto vitamin B deficiency

774

Hypertonic solution

Higher solute concentration

775

Specific Recognition Between Sperm and Egg

•  Specific recognition molecules mediate interactions between sperm and eggs.

•  This ensures that activities of the sperm are directed toward eggs and not other cells and prevents eggs from being fertilized by sperm of the wrong species.

•  This latter function is particularly importantin aquatic species, such as sea urchins, that release sperm and eggs into the surrounding water.

776

Functions of the nervous system

Recieves information, processes information, outputs information

777

Arrangement of microtubules in flagella and cilia

9+2 array- 9 pairs and 2 individual microtubules in center

At the base of flagella and cilia is the nasal body, the 9 rings extend there

778

Electron microscope

Use electromagnets to focus an electron beam, wavelength is much shorter than light so much higher resolution .5 nm

779

Limit of resolution

.61 x wavelength / NA

NA= refractive index x sine of angle of most oblique ray

780

Oogenesis

•  Oogenesis produces eggs.
•  Individual egg maturation can be arrested for months, or for as long as 10 (puberty) to 50 (menopause) years in humans!
•  During this phase, the primary oocyte grows and addsto its energy, ribosome, and organelle stores. This tpermits the resulting embryo to have nourishment.

781

Proteins

Polymers of amino acids, each has different AA composition and order

Folding is crucial to the function of a protein, influenced by the AA sequence

782

Where are these microorganisms?

They like moisture, food particles, want to get in blood vessels (from there they can travel all over the body)

783

Alveolar type I cells

form the wall of the alveoli

784

Transmural pressure

The pressure difference between two membranes

785

Boyle's law

Pressure and volume are inversely proportiona

Gases in a container, when volume decreased, pressure increases due to collision of gas molecules and now these gas molecules are confined to a smaller place, so more bombardment

Lungs are always changing in volume so the pressure changes as well with inspiration and expiration

786

B lymphocytes

Transform into plasma cells and release antibodies into the circulation, which are proteins that tag the pathogens to signal the immune cells to destroy it

Form memory cells- every pathogen has specific surface receptors (signature), they can remember for next time how to fight the infection

787

Path of the egg

the mature egg is released into the body cavity and is swept into the end of the oviduct (Fallopian tube) by an undulating fringe of tissue (Fertilization takes place in the oviduct and, in humans, the second meiotic division takes place)

Cilia lining the oviduct propel the fertilized or unfertilized egg toward the uterus, a muscular, thick-walled cavity

The opening at the bottom of the uterus is the cervix,which leads into the vagina

788

Mode of travel of peptides and steroids

Peptides- travel easy in blood because water soluble

Lipids- mostly water so need transport proteins to shield them from hydrophillicity of blood because not water soluble

789

Amino acids

Have carbonyl and amino groups with a hydrogen and an R group

function as an acid and base

R group make differences in amino acids

790

Spontaneous reaction

Goes more than halfway to completion without input of energy

Exergonic, negative delta G

Release energy in form of heat, light, etc

Reverse process must be endergonic

791

Amniocentesis

extraction of amnioticfluid with a needle, after the fourteenth week of pregnancy

792

Cristae

Folds of the inner membrane give rise to these

Contains large protein molecules used in cellular respiration

793

Lymphoid tissues

Adenoids, tonsils, thymus, lymph noes, spleen, bone marrow, lymphatic vessels

Immune cells originate here, majorly from bone marrow

immune cells are scattered all over, but they are clustered in certain areas in case of infection

794

Organization of the immune system

Nonspecific immune response- protects against foreign substances without having to recognize their identity

Specific immune response- highly specific, usually a major problem that your body is really trying to fight

795

Twinning

•  If blastomeres separate into two groups, each can produce an embryo.

•  Monozygotic twins come from the same zygote and are identical.

•  Nonidentical twins are from two eggs fertilized by two sperm.

796

Rubisco

Enzyme that catalyzes fixation of CO2

Ribosome bisphosphate carboxylase/

Most abundant protein in the world, 50% of the protein in a leaf

797

Limit of resolution

.61 x wavelength / NA

NA= refractive index x sine of angle of most oblique ray

798

Signaling events

Graded potential- from dendrites into the cell body, minor change in electrical activity

Action potential- at axon hillock and axon

Propagation- traveling of electron activity

Neurotransmitter release

799

Occipital lobe

Visual cortex

Process visual information

800

RNA bases

Uracil instead of thymine

Single stranded but complementary base pairing occurs in the structure of some types of RNA

801

Pathogens

Parasite

Bacteria

Protist

Fungi

Virus

802

Entry of Sperm into the Egg

•  In animals with internal fertilization, egg–sperm recognition mechanisms also exist.
•  In the female reproductive tract, mammalian sperm are metabolically activated and attracted to the egg in the oviduct, but also aided in their movement by muscular contractions.
•  The mammalian egg is surrounded by a thick layer called the cumulus. Beneath that is a protein envelope called the zona pellucida.
•  A species-specific glycoprotein in the zona pellucida binds to the head of the sperm.
•  The acrosomal reaction is triggered, releasing acrosomal enzymes that digest a path through the zona pellucida

803

Antenna systems

Pigments arranged in these

Also called light harvesting complexes

804

Optimal conditions for enzymes

pH and temperature

805

FSH/LH

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) & luteinizing hormone (LH)

Produces gametes and sex hormones

Target organs: testes or ovaries

806

The Cardiovascular System

A closed system (blood always contained in blood vessels, always circulating) that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood
–  The heart pumps blood
–  Blood vessels provide the path for the blood to travel (like a freeway)
–  Blood carries nutrients and picks up wastes

807

Mechanisms of steroids action on target cells

Every cell exposed to this hormone, and steroid cell is hydrophobic so can interact with every cell but not every cell has receptor

Exits blood vessel to get to the target cell

Steroid permeates through cell membrane and forms complex called hormone receptor complex in nucleus, bind to a section of DNA gene called hormone response element that activates the gene to start gene expression

Messenger RNA made and goes to the cell cytosol

Synthesizes protien and makes changes inside the cell and causes cellular response

Slow process but major changes

808

Accessory pigments

Transfer energy absorbed to chorophylls

Carotenoids and phycobilins

Absorb intermediate between red and blue

809

third trimester

internal organs mature and organ systems begin to function

The last organs to mature before birthare the lungs

810

Alveolar type I cells

form the wall of the alveoli

811

Carotenoids

Light-absorbing pigments

Source of vitamin A

812

Fluorescence

When a pigment returns to ground state some of the energy may be given off as heat and some as fluorescence

Fluorescence has longer wavelengths and less energy than the absorbed light energy

No chemical work done

If pigment can pass the energy to another molecule, there's no fluorescence, the energy can be passed to a reaction center where it is converted to chemical energy

813

Photosynthesis

"synthesis from light"

Plants take in CO2, produce carbohydrates, and release O2 and water

Light is required

6CO2 + 12H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

814

Chloroplasts

Sites where photosynthesis occurs, one type of plastid

Surrounded by two layers and have interal membrane system

815

Cyclic electron transport

Electron from excited P700 chlorophyll molecule n photosystem one cycles back to the same chlorophyll molecule

Involves a series of exergonic redox reactions, the released energy creates a proton gradient that is used to synthesize ATP

816

Pigments

Molecules that absorb specific wavelengths in the visible range of the spectrum

Photons can have a wide range of wavelengths and energy levels

817

Gastrulation

Gastrulation is the process in which a blastulais transformed into an embryo with three
tissue layers and body axes

818

Organization of the immune system

Nonspecific immune response- protects against foreign substances without having to recognize their identity

Specific immune response- highly specific, usually a major problem that your body is really trying to fight

819

Where Does Fertilization Take Place?

•  Fertilization in mammals occurs in the upper oviduct; cleavage occurs as the zygote travels down the oviduct.

•  When the blastocyst arrives in the uterus, the trophoblast adheres to the uterine wall (the endometrium), which begins the process of implantation.

•  Early implantation in the oviduct wall is prevented by the zona pellucida. Inadvertent implantationcauses a tubal pregnancy, which is very dangerous.

•  In the uterus, the blastocyst hatches out of the zona pellucida, and implantation can occur.

•  Stimulated by estrogen, the endometrium develops new blood vessels to cradle the blastocyst.

•  The blastocyst burrows in (implantation), interacting with the wall to form the placenta.

820

Ruben and kamen

Used radioisotope tracers (O18 and O16) to determine that water was the source of O2 released during photosynthesis rather than CO2

821

Lymphoid progenitor cells

Form into B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes

822

Photosystem 2

Light energy oxidizes water to oxygen, H+, and electrons

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P680 absorbs at 680 nm (more energetic than P700)

Excited first

823

Premature Contractions and Delivery

•  A positive feedback loop develops (mechanical stimuli increase the release of oxytocin, and vice versa), and this converts Braxton-Hicks contractions into stronger labor contractions.

•  In the early stage of labor, contractions gradually become more frequent and intense until they haveopened the cervix.

•  In the delivery stage, the baby’s head moves into the vagina and becomes visible from the outside.

•  The usual head-down position of the baby comes about during the seventh month of pregnancy.

824

Parasite

Any organism that invades and lives by the expense of another body

Most are animals, either micro or macroscopic

Infects muscles and digestive system takes blood (muscles) and nutrients (liver)

825

Mitochondrial matrix

Region enclosed by inner membrane

Krebs or citric acid cycle takes place here

826

Complement system

Pore formation: First complement protein (inactive), cascade of protein activation in bacterial cell

Swelling: fluid rushes into cells

Lysis

827

Somites

separate, segmented blocks of cells on either side of the neural tube.

Muscle, cartilage, bone, and lower layer of the skin form from somites.

Neural crest cells are guided by somites to develop into peripheral nerves and other structures

828

Other roles for nucleotides

ATP- energy transducer in biochemical reactions

GTP- energy source in protein synthesis

cAMP- essential to the action of hormones and transmission of information in the nervous system

829

Adenohypophysis

Anterior pituitary gland

made of secretory glands, non neuronal, makes and releases own hormones. No neuronal connects on to hypothalamus

•  Releases six peptide hormones, all made of peptides
–  Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) & luteinizing hormone (LH)
–  Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
–  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–  Prolactin
–  Growth hormone (GH)

830

Where does calcium come from?

Important ion, numerous functions

High intercellular level can be toxic and therefore must be maintained at a very low level inside the cell (10^-9 M)

Stored in muscle cells, no reliance on extracellular calcium concentration

831

DNA replication

Depends on base pairing, as does transcription

Involves entire molecule only small sections of DNA are transcribed into RNA

832

third trimester

internal organs mature and organ systems begin to function

The last organs to mature before birthare the lungs

833

Correlation of Electrocardiogram graph and heart activities

Beginning of P wave- SA Node, AV

Middle to end of P wave- AV Nodal delay

Between P wave and QRS- Signals travel through bundle of his reaching the apex

QRS complex- pukinje fibers

Within ventricles, heart contracts from bottom to top, all the blood comes out, none remains below

834

Boyle's law

Pressure and volume are inversely proportiona

Gases in a container, when volume decreased, pressure increases due to collision of gas molecules and now these gas molecules are confined to a smaller place, so more bombardment

Lungs are always changing in volume so the pressure changes as well with inspiration and expiration

835

Light microscopes

Glass lenses focus visible light, max resolution of .2 um

836

Retina

Photoreceptors recover light and end it to the brain through optic nerve

Contains fovea centralis( photoreceptors scattered all of retina, but these are the places where they have the guest concentrate on, called high visual acuity)

Types of cells:
ganglion- long axons that send signals to the brain
Amacrine- support cells, strengthen synapses, between ganglion and bipolar
bipolar- form synapses with rods and cones
horizontal- support cells, strengthen synapses, between photoreceptors and bipolar cells
photoreceptors (rods and cones)- when stimulated, electrical activity begins

When light first hits ganglion and bipolar cells nothing happens because they are not equipped to react to light,

837

How do gases cross the lung/bloodmedia?

Process of diffusion.

Alveoli made of single layered cells, blood capillaries only have tunica intima and some connective tissue, so very thin, and easy process of diffusion

Both the capillaries and the alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium

838

Entry of Sperm into the Egg

•  In animals with internal fertilization, egg–sperm recognition mechanisms also exist.
•  In the female reproductive tract, mammalian sperm are metabolically activated and attracted to the egg in the oviduct, but also aided in their movement by muscular contractions.
•  The mammalian egg is surrounded by a thick layer called the cumulus. Beneath that is a protein envelope called the zona pellucida.
•  A species-specific glycoprotein in the zona pellucida binds to the head of the sperm.
•  The acrosomal reaction is triggered, releasing acrosomal enzymes that digest a path through the zona pellucida

839

Frontal lobe

Motor functions, movement of muscles

Premotor cortex- planning
Primary motor cortex- initiates motor movements (motor homunculus), bottom up
Prefrontal association cortex- complex tasks and cognitive functions
Broca's area- speech production

840

Axon terminals

Axon collaterals terminate in many axon terminals

Contain neurotransmitter filled vesicles

Electrical signal changes to chemical signal

841

How do gases cross the lung/bloodmedia?

Process of diffusion.

Alveoli made of single layered cells, blood capillaries only have tunica intima and some connective tissue, so very thin, and easy process of diffusion

Both the capillaries and the alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium

842

What causes binding to occur?

ATP and calcium

843

Ossicles

3 small bones, malleus, incus, and stapes(attatched to oval window)

844

Intermediate filaments

Fund in multicellular organisms, form rope like structures in cells

Stabilize cell strucuture and resist tension

Can maintain the positions of organelles

Lamins provide structural support to the nuclear membrane

845

Peptide linkage

Condensation reactions between amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another

Synthesizes proteins

846

Cell recognition and adhesion

Sponge cells- separation and come back together

Glycoproteins are involved in cell recognition and binding

Homotypic binding- same molecule sticks out from both cells and forms a bond

Heterotypic binding- cells have different proteins

847

Macrophages in alveoli

Ward against foreign bodies, get rid of debris

848

Gap junctions in cardiac muscles

protein ensures exchange of material between cells, important in heart because they ensure synchrony in contraction by spreading electrical activities

(ex all cells in atria contract at the same time, in ventricles those cells contract simultaneously to ensure efficiency)

849

Blastomere

•  Blastomeres become determined, or committed toa specific fate, at different times in different animals.

•  Roundworm and clam blastomeres are already determined at the 8-cell stage.

•  If one cell is removed, a portion of the embryo fails to develop normally. This is called mosaic development.

•  Humans have regulative development. If some cells are lost during cleavage, other cells can compensate. For genetic testing in humans, one cell can be removed from a blastula following in vitro fertilization. If there are no mutations in the gene of interest, that blastula can be implanted

850

Tunica externa

Connective tissue with elastic and collagen fibers

851

Substrates

Reactants in a catalytic reactions

852

Morula

the embryo as a solid ball ofsmall cells. (from Latin for mulberry)

853

AP Step 2

Threshold is reached and the VGSC are triggered to open while the VGPC are still closed- they are slower

854

Male genitalia

Penis and scrotum

855

Entry of Sperm into the Egg

•  In animals with internal fertilization, egg–sperm recognition mechanisms also exist.
•  In the female reproductive tract, mammalian sperm are metabolically activated and attracted to the egg in the oviduct, but also aided in their movement by muscular contractions.
•  The mammalian egg is surrounded by a thick layer called the cumulus. Beneath that is a protein envelope called the zona pellucida.
•  A species-specific glycoprotein in the zona pellucida binds to the head of the sperm.
•  The acrosomal reaction is triggered, releasing acrosomal enzymes that digest a path through the zona pellucida

856

Phagocytosis

Attatchment (opsonization)- Physically bind to pathogen

Internalization, turns into phagosome

Degradation- Fuses with lysosome and becomes phagolysosome, and after the digestive enzymes can be reused

Exocytosis- elimination of debris

857

Non competitive inhibitors

Bind to enzyme at a different site than the active site

Enzyme changes shape and alters the active site

858

Stoma

Mouth of plant

Co2 enters and O2/water exit through these pores

859

Cleavage

a rapid series of celldivision, but no cell growth

In mammals cleavage is rotational:
First cell division is parallel to the animal–vegetal axis; yields two blastomeres.

In second division two blastomeres divide at right angles to each other;one is parallel to the axis and the other is perpendicular to it. This pattern of division is unique to mammals with placentas.

860

Mitochondrial matrix

Region enclosed by inner membrane

Krebs or citric acid cycle takes place here

861

Phospholipid belayer

Hydrophobic tails line up and the hydrophilic heads face outward

862

trophoblast

•  In mammals, the first extraembryonic membrane to form is the trophoblast.

•  When the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida, the trophoblast cells attach to the uterine wall, This is the beginning of implantation.

•  The trophoblast becomes part of the uterine wall, and sends out villi to increase surface area and contact with maternal blood.

863

Extensive ER membrane system

Cells specialized for synthesizing proteins have these

864

Nonspecific immunity

Prevention

Attack- if it gets in the circulatory system

865

Fertilization

Fertilization is the union of haploid sperm and haploid egg to produce a single diploid cell, the zygote

866

Morula

the embryo as a solid ball ofsmall cells. (from Latin for mulberry)

867

Bacteria

Unicellular prokaryotes

868

Rubisco

Enzyme that catalyzes fixation of CO2

Ribosome bisphosphate carboxylase/

Most abundant protein in the world, 50% of the protein in a leaf

869

Adenohypophysis

Anterior pituitary gland

made of secretory glands, non neuronal, makes and releases own hormones. No neuronal connects on to hypothalamus

•  Releases six peptide hormones, all made of peptides
–  Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) & luteinizing hormone (LH)
–  Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
–  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–  Prolactin
–  Growth hormone (GH)

870

Light reactions

Convert light energy to chemical energy as ATP and NADH

871

When a pigment molecule absorbs a photon (excited state) the energy can be-

Released as heat and/or light

Transferred to another molecule

Used for a chemical reaction

872

Pigments

Molecules that absorb specific wavelengths in the visible range of the spectrum

Photons can have a wide range of wavelengths and energy levels

873

Protist

Uni or multicellular, contaminate lakes and drinking water to invade host

874

Ester linkage

Carboxyl bind with hydroxyls of glycerol

875

Channel proteins

Central pore lined with amino acids

876

Integral membrane proteins

Hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions

Sme extend across the lipid bilayer and others are partially embedded

877

Complement system

Pore formation: First complement protein (inactive), cascade of protein activation in bacterial cell

Swelling: fluid rushes into cells

Lysis

878

Air composition

78.1% nitrogen (goes into lungs and leaves), 20.9% oxygen

Total atmospheric pressure= 760 mmHg (Pressure= concentration)- Patm = PN2 + PO2

Temperature and altitude changes atmospheric pressure

Partial pressure of N2 = 760 mmHg x 0.781 ~ 600 mmHg

Partial pressure of O2 = 760 mmHg x 0.21 ~ 160mmHg

We breathe very easily, so partial pressure in lungs should be lower, so process of diffusion is easy. 100 mm mercury

879

AP Step 7

Both voltage gated channels are closed and membrane comes back to resting potential

880

How does electronegativity determine the structure of water?

O is more electronegative than H, so the O has a more negative charge

881

Muscles of Expiration

•  Passive expiration
–  Elastic recoil of the lungs

•  Active expiration
–  Contraction of internal intercostals
–  Contraction of abdominal muscles (causesdiaphragm to be pushed up)

882

Fluid mosaic model

General structure of membranes

Phospholipids form a bilayer which is like a lakes which proteins float

883

Z scheme

Model of noncyclic electron transport

Extracts electrons from water and transfers them to NADPH, using energy from photosynthesis one and two and resulting in ATP synthesis

Yields ATP, NADPH, and O2

884

Fungi

Yeast is a unicellular form

Ex: athlete's foot

885

ejaculation

(orgasm), contractions of the muscles at the base of the penis force semen throughthe urethra and out of the penis

After ejaculation, the autonomic nervous system causes constriction of the vessels in the penis and thus a decrease in blood pressure in the erectile tissue; the compression of blood vessels leaving the penis is relieved and the erection declines

886

Radioisotopes after world war II

Became readily available to cell biologists to study cell metabolism

Ex: tritium(3H) emits beta particle when one extra neutron changes into a proton

Autoradiography- radioisotopes can trace the fate of molecules in cells

887

Prokaryotes

No nucleus or other membrane enclosed compartments

Lack distinct organelles

888

Functions of the Respiratory System

•  Provides oxygen

•  Eliminates carbon dioxide

•  Regulates pH level- More co2 you get rid of the more hydrogen ions you get rid of

•  Speech production

•  Defense against foreign bodies- non specific immunity

889

Lysosomes

Vesicles containing digestive enzymes that come in part from the Golgi

Sites for breakdown of food and foreign material brought into the cell by phagocytosis

Detection of spent cellular components- autophagy- cell components are frequently destroyed and replaced with new ones

890

Aorta

Delivers oxygenated blood from left ventricle to body

Biggest blood vessel in body

891

Second trimester

limbs elongate and facial features form

892

Processes of the Digestive

•  Motility- mixing of food

•  Secretion- enzymes being released, produced in digestive system cells, ingredient sometimes produced in blood.

•  Digestion- chemical breakdown of covalent bonds

•  Absorption- Broken down into individual units, can be absorbed, accessible to cells

893

Immunization

Series of shots

MMR- immunization shot against meals, mumps, rubella

Small quantity of pathogens to build immune response, memory cells to speed up recovery next time

894

Pathogens

Parasite

Bacteria

Protist

Fungi

Virus

895

Steps in neurulation

•  The ectoderm over the notochord thickens and forms the neural plate.

•  Edges of the neural plate fold and a deep groove forms.

•  The folds fuse, forming the neural tube and a layer of ectoderm, The anterior end of the neural tube becomes the brain, the rest becomes the spinal cord

896

Pressure and Volume Change

During inspiration the volume of the lungs increases and the pressure decreases- atmospheric pressure is higher than alveolar pressure, and diffusion can occur


During expiration, the volume of the lungs decreases and the pressure increases- alveolar pressure becomes higher than atmospheric pressure- diffusion outwards

897

Magnetoreceptors

Responds to earths magnetic field

Ex: birds in migration

898

Photosynthetic prokaryotes

Some bacteria, including Cyanobacteria can do carry on photosynthesis

Plasma membrane is unfolded and has chlorophyll

899

Two functions of DNA

Can reproduce itself (replication)

Can copy its information into RNA (transcription), RNA can specify a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide (translation)

900

Golgi apparatus

Has flattened membrane sacs and small membrane enclosed vesicles

901

Muscles of Expiration

•  Passive expiration
–  Elastic recoil of the lungs

•  Active expiration
–  Contraction of internal intercostals
–  Contraction of abdominal muscles (causesdiaphragm to be pushed up)

902

Action spectrum

Plot of biological activity as a function of exposure to varied wavelengths of light

903

Proteins and lipids in the membrane interacting

Independent, only interact noncovalently

Some membrane proteins have fatty acids or other lipid groups covalently attached, called anchored membrane proteins

904

Densities of H2O at various states

Water>ice>vapor

905

Lymphoid progenitor cells

Form into B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes

906

Penis

The penis is a tubular shaft, the tip of which has sensitive skin called the glans penis that is very responsive to sexual stimulation

907

PRL

Prolactin

Hormone responsible for milk production

Target cell: mammary glands

908

Gastrulation

Gastrulation is the process in which a blastulais transformed into an embryo with three
tissue layers and body axes

909

Nucleolus

Specialized region inside the nucleus where ribosomes are initially assembled

910

Cellular respiration

Production of ATP

911

Rate of reactions

Rate of uncalled reaction is proportional to concentration of reactants

Rate of catalyzed reaction is proportional to reactants until the enzyme is saturated, and then the rate levels off

912

Active site

Substrate molecules bind here on the enzyme

Small region of whole protein

913

Flagella

Locomotory structures shaped like corkscrew

Some prokaryotes have this

914

Energy transfer and electron transport

Light energy absorbed by antenna chlorophylls, and passed on to reaction center

Molecule goes to excited state

Energized electron from chlorophyll molecules passed to electron acceptor to reduce it

915

Calvin and benson

Used 14C radioisotope to determine the sequence of reactions in CO2 fixation

Exposed chlorella to 14CO2 then extracted the organic compounds and separated them by paper chromatography

3 second exposure of chlorella to 14CO2 revealed that the first compound to be formed is 3PG, a 3 carbon sugar phosphate

916

Light

A form of electromagnetic radiation

Propagated as waves, energy of light is inversely proportional to wavelength (must be appropriate wavelength to be absorbed by receptive molecules

Light also behaves as particles called photons, plants absorb these

917

How do gases cross the lung/bloodmedia?

Process of diffusion.

Alveoli made of single layered cells, blood capillaries only have tunica intima and some connective tissue, so very thin, and easy process of diffusion

Both the capillaries and the alveoli are lined with simple squamous epithelium

918

Vasodilation & Increased Permeability

• Histamine causes vasodilation
– increases diameter, Increase in blood flow to infected area
– Redness occurs
– Increase delivery of proteins
– Edema occurs- swelling, fluid from blood cells into interstitial tissue

• increased permeability- proteins gain entry from blood to interstitial fluid

• objective- get more immune cells

919

Double helix

Two strands of DNA molecule form this

All have this structure so diversity is in the sequence of base pairs, info encoded in this sequence

920

Sertoli cells

•  The germ cells are protected from noxioussubstances in the blood by Sertoli cells, which also provide nutrients for the developing sperm and are involved in the hormonal control of spermatogenesis.

921

Tetanus

Clostridium tetani- anaerobic bacteria, can still survive in a wound even if there is poor circulation because it needs no oxygen, muscles lock due to overstimulation

Bacteria releases a toxin that travels to the CNS (BBB can usually prevent toxins from reaching the brain but not these), and then it fucks with inhibitory activity allowing neurotransmitters to be available for long periods of time and not allowing them to be broken down, hyperexcitability of muscles

922

Sharp object penetrating skin

Easiest way to get infected by a pathogen

Some cells are already in the vicinity, they destroy and then call for back up

923

Different amino acids

5 charged hydrophilic side chains

5 polar uncharged side chains

7 non polar hydrophobic side chains

Cysteine- has terminal sulfhydryl that allows for disulfide bonding

Glycine- H as R group

Proline- modified amino group, forms a ring with R group

924

Somites

separate, segmented blocks of cells on either side of the neural tube.

Muscle, cartilage, bone, and lower layer of the skin form from somites.

Neural crest cells are guided by somites to develop into peripheral nerves and other structures

925

Pinocytosis

"cell drinking"

Vesicles for,s to bring small dissolved substances or fluids into a cell, much smaller vesicles than in phagocytosis

Constant in endothelial cells

926

Inspiration

Diaphragm- Lungs physically sit on diaphragm, main muscle for respiration, pushes down during inspiration

External intercostal muscles- contact and push down

927

Two systems related to muscles in heart

Within a heartbeat, it pumps both ways simultaneously, pulmonary circuit doesn't require as much work as systemic, so left side has more muscle thickness because that is where it pumps the blood to the rest of the body

928

How is Carbon Dioxide Transported?

5-6% dissolved in plasma

5-8% bind to hemoglobin at a different binding site than oxygen

86-90% converted to hydrogen ions and bicarbonate by enzyme called carbonic anhydrase. When co2 goes up hydrogen ions go up and ph decreases, and vice versa. Want ph of 7.4

929

prostate gland

produces the thin, milky fluid thatmakes up the rest of the volume of semen


Prostate fluid makes the uterine environment morehospitable to sperm and converts the semen, by
enzyme action on the fibrinogen, into a gelatinous
mass

930

The large intestine

Small intestine drains into the large intestine at the cecum

Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid colons, rectum, anal sphincter

•  Mostly contains things we cannot digest, but some absorption of water and electrolytes occurs

•  Houses bacteria- Symbiotic relationship, they get unlimited source of food, generate methane gas, they produce vitamin K for us which we absorb in the large intestine

•  Indigested material is known as feces

931

Visual fields

If one's head is always facing forward:

Fixation point straight ahead, R and L visual field, nasal

Fixation point slightly to the right- R and L visual field, R nasal and L temporal

Fixation point far right- loss of depth perception, can only see with right eye

932

Alveolar type I cells

form the wall of the alveoli

933

Electronegativity

Depends on number of + charges in the nucleus and the distances of the electron from the nucleus

934

Prokaryotes

No nucleus or other membrane enclosed compartments

Lack distinct organelles

935

Saturated fatty acids

No double bonds between carbons, saturated with H+ atoms

Close packing of phospholipids into a monolayer, solid at room temperature

936

Complement system

Pore formation: First complement protein (inactive), cascade of protein activation in bacterial cell

Swelling: fluid rushes into cells

Lysis

937

System of respiration

Constant exchange of air: ventilation (tidal volume)

Diffusion- oxygen from lungs to blood

Circulation- bulk transport

Diffusion of oxygen into cells

Cellular respiration

938

Virus

Cause major problems by taking over/infecting cells

939

Light reactions

Convert light energy to chemical energy as ATP and NADH

940

Hair cell

Mechanoreceptors with cilia on surface (stereo ilium, tallest called kinocilium)

Stretch gated ion channels, cilia bonding stretches membrane and opens channel

Endolymph surrounding hair cells is rich in K+ that moves inward, causes depolarization

941

Second trimester

limbs elongate and facial features form

942

Action potential

Electrical activity in nervous system

Membrane depolarizes, repolarizes, then hyperpolarizes

Two voltage gated channels play a major role (sodium and potassium)

Threshold: -50 to -55 mV

225mph, .02 seconds

943

Pressure and Volume Change

During inspiration the volume of the lungs increases and the pressure decreases- atmospheric pressure is higher than alveolar pressure, and diffusion can occur


During expiration, the volume of the lungs decreases and the pressure increases- alveolar pressure becomes higher than atmospheric pressure- diffusion outwards

944

Aquaporins

Special water channels for water to cross a membrane with

Also can cross by hitch hiking with other molecules

945

When a pigment molecule absorbs a photon (excited state) the energy can be-

Released as heat and/or light

Transferred to another molecule

Used for a chemical reaction

946

Gas transport through membranes

Oxygen has to cross alveoli and membrane of the capillaries to get into the plasma, and then another membrane to get inside the red blood cells

Loading phase- hemoglobin picks up oxygen

Unloading phase- release oxygen into your tissues to use, takes into mitochondria to produce ATP

947

Vasodilation & Increased Permeability

• Histamine causes vasodilation
– increases diameter, Increase in blood flow to infected area
– Redness occurs
– Increase delivery of proteins
– Edema occurs- swelling, fluid from blood cells into interstitial tissue

• increased permeability- proteins gain entry from blood to interstitial fluid

• objective- get more immune cells

948

Amniocentesis

extraction of amnioticfluid with a needle, after the fourteenth week of pregnancy

949

Monocytes/macrophages

Monocytes are inactive form, on patrol, macrophages are active, they attack

Engulf and digest

Activate T cells

Once monocytes enter tissue they become macrophages

950

Receptor mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells

Take in cholesterol

I liver, cholesterol packaged into low density lipoprotein (LDL) and secreted into the bloodstream

Cells that need cholesterol have receptors for the LDLs in clathrin coated pits

951

Active transport involves 3 kinds of proteins

Uniporters- one ion, one direction

Symporters- 2 ions, same direction

Antiporters- 2 ions, different directions

952

Phagocytosis & Recruitment

• Macrophages in the nearby tissue detect bacteria using receptor proteins to engulf them
• Macrophages release cytokines- chemicals for recruitment
• Mast cells release histamine- causes vasodilation
• Injured cells release chemotaxins- chemo attractants to attract immune cells

953

Beta glucose

OH up, H down

954

Oogenesis

•  Oogenesis produces eggs.
•  Individual egg maturation can be arrested for months, or for as long as 10 (puberty) to 50 (menopause) years in humans!
•  During this phase, the primary oocyte grows and addsto its energy, ribosome, and organelle stores. This tpermits the resulting embryo to have nourishment.

955

Morula

the embryo as a solid ball ofsmall cells. (from Latin for mulberry)

956

Reversible reactions

In principle all actions are reversible A<-->B

Adding more A speeds up the forward reaction, more B speeds up reverse reaction

957

Erythropoitin

Hormone produced in kidney to maintain homeostasis of red blood cells, life span at 120 days so it is measured by a receptor, this hormone is sent to bone and told to release more

958

Monocytes/macrophages

Monocytes are inactive form, on patrol, macrophages are active, they attack

Engulf and digest

Activate T cells

Once monocytes enter tissue they become macrophages

959

Cleavage

a rapid series of celldivision, but no cell growth

In mammals cleavage is rotational:
First cell division is parallel to the animal–vegetal axis; yields two blastomeres.

In second division two blastomeres divide at right angles to each other;one is parallel to the axis and the other is perpendicular to it. This pattern of division is unique to mammals with placentas.

960

Specific Recognition Between Sperm and Egg

•  Specific recognition molecules mediate interactions between sperm and eggs.

•  This ensures that activities of the sperm are directed toward eggs and not other cells and prevents eggs from being fertilized by sperm of the wrong species.

•  This latter function is particularly importantin aquatic species, such as sea urchins, that release sperm and eggs into the surrounding water.

961

Compliance

Ability to change volume and pressure

Balloon is like the lungs- highly compliant

Paper bag- not compliant

962

Spina bifida

failure of the neural tube to fuse in a posterior region dueto vitamin B deficiency

963

Myeloid progenitor cells

Blood/platelets or immune cells produced

Types of immune cells:

Granular cells- neutrophils, mast cells

agranular cells- monocytes, macrophages,

964

The large intestine

Small intestine drains into the large intestine at the cecum

Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid colons, rectum, anal sphincter

•  Mostly contains things we cannot digest, but some absorption of water and electrolytes occurs

•  Houses bacteria- Symbiotic relationship, they get unlimited source of food, generate methane gas, they produce vitamin K for us which we absorb in the large intestine

•  Indigested material is known as feces

965

Roles of the plasma membrane

Selectively permeable barrier

Interface for cells where info is received from adjacent cells and extracellular signals

Allows cells to maintain a constant internal environment

Molecules responsible for binding to adjacent cells

966

Photoreceptors

Sense light

967

Cell theory

Cells are the fundamental units of life

All organisms are composed of cells

All cells come from preexisting cells

968

Microbes

Harmful substances, living or dead

969

Catalytic subunit

Active site on this subunit

970

Propagation of the action potential

Once the action potential occurs, depolarization spreads to other parts of the axons

Depolarization triggers VGSC to open and more action potentials to occur

971

Nociceptors

Pain receptors on skin

972

What properties of water make it so important in biology?

Polar molecule

Forms hydrogen bonds

Has tetrahedral shape

973

Functions of the Respiratory System

•  Provides oxygen

•  Eliminates carbon dioxide

•  Regulates pH level- More co2 you get rid of the more hydrogen ions you get rid of

•  Speech production

•  Defense against foreign bodies- non specific immunity

974

Organization of the immune system

Nonspecific immune response- protects against foreign substances without having to recognize their identity

Specific immune response- highly specific, usually a major problem that your body is really trying to fight

975

Covalent catalysis

Functional group in the side chain bonds covalently with the substrate

976

Twinning

•  If blastomeres separate into two groups, each can produce an embryo.

•  Monozygotic twins come from the same zygote and are identical.

•  Nonidentical twins are from two eggs fertilized by two sperm.

977

Photosynthesis in noncyclic electron electron transport

Each photosystem consists of several chlorophyll and accessory pigment molecules

Complement each other, must be constantly absorbing light energy to power noncyclic electron transport

978

Superior vena cava

Brings deoxygenated blood from all structures above diaphragm

979

Parasite

Any organism that invades and lives by the expense of another body

Most are animals, either micro or macroscopic

Infects muscles and digestive system takes blood (muscles) and nutrients (liver)

980

Blastocyst

When blastula reaches 16 to 32 cells, it divides into two groups:

•  Inner cell mass: becomes the embryo

•  Trophoblast: a sac that forms from the outer cells. Its cells secrete fluid and create the blastocoel, with the inner cell mass at one end. Embryo is now called a blastocyst.

981

Beta glucose

OH up, H down

982

Non cyclic electron transport

Light energy is used to oxidize water, produces O2, H+, and electrons

After excitation by light, Chl+ is an unstable molecule and seeks electrons

Chl+ is a stron oxidizing agent and takes electrons from water, splitting the water molecule

983

Alveolar type II cells

Secrete surfactant which keeps the alveoli from collapsing

984

Nucleus

Contains most of the cells DNA and is the site of DNA duplication to support cell reproduction

Plays role in DNA control of cell activities

985

First trimester

embryo becomes a fetus

Heart begins to beat by week 4

Limbs form by week 8

The first trimester is the period during which the fetus is most susceptible to damage from radiation, drugs, chemicals, and agents that cause birth defects.

The hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) is released after implantation and is an early indicator of pregnancy

986

Starch

Storage of glucose in plants
Branched

987

Erythropoitin

Hormone produced in kidney to maintain homeostasis of red blood cells, life span at 120 days so it is measured by a receptor, this hormone is sent to bone and told to release more

988

Childbirth

•  Passage of the baby is assisted by the mother’s bearing down with her abdominal muscles.

•  Once the baby is clear of the birth canal it canstart breathing and become independent of the mother’s circulation, so the umbilical cord is clamped and cut.

•  Finally, the placenta and fetal membranes are detached from the mother and expelled (several minutes–1 hour)

989

Allergy

Overactive or disproportionate immune system

Chemicals released

Anti histamine can be used (because histamine is the alarm)

990

Where are these microorganisms?

They like moisture, food particles, want to get in blood vessels (from there they can travel all over the body)

991

Right and left atrium

Receiving chambers

992

Twinning

•  If blastomeres separate into two groups, each can produce an embryo.

•  Monozygotic twins come from the same zygote and are identical.

•  Nonidentical twins are from two eggs fertilized by two sperm.

993

Tight junctions

Prevent substances from moving through spaces between cells

Barrier to diffusion of proteins within the lipid bilayer so it defines functional regions

994

Branching of the airways

Conducting zone: trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles

Respiratory zone: respiratory bronchioles, alveoli (each alveolus is covered with many capillaries to facilitate the exchange of materials)

995

Radioisotopes after world war II

Became readily available to cell biologists to study cell metabolism

Ex: tritium(3H) emits beta particle when one extra neutron changes into a proton

Autoradiography- radioisotopes can trace the fate of molecules in cells

996

CRH

Corticotropin releasing hormone

Stimulate release of ACTH

997

Sterile cotton swab

Collect microorganisms by smearing on surface

Put on a culture dish with solution called tryptic soy agar, which has nutrients that make bacteria reproduce so you can see them

998

Ionic bonds

Formed by the electrical attraction of positive and negative ions

999

During gastrulation, three germ layers form

–  The inner germ layer is the endoderm and gives rise to the digestive tract, circulatory tract, and respiratory tract.

–  The outer layer, the ectoderm, gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system.

–  The middle layer, the mesoderm, contributes to bone, muscle, liver, heart, and blood vessels

1000

AIDS

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, viruses attack immune cells, vulnerable system open to opportunistic infection

1001

Physical barriers

Skin- brick layers of cells, most pathogens can't get through it, also produces a hard and fibrous protein called keratin. The closest layer to the surface has the highest amount of keratin- the outermost layer of skin is dead, it produced too much keratin to function

Fibrous layer of the eyes

Mucous membrane of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems, and ear- thick membrane that prevents pathogens from getting into the circulation

Cilia

1002

Lungs and the mechanisms of the chest

Easy, effortless to breath because of the mechanics of the lungs- always slightly inflated to make inspiration easier

Lungs attached to chest wall and inner layer of your rib cage by very thin set of membranes called a pleural sac

Ribs protect your lungs and work in synchrony with them, chest expands and increase in volume along with your lungs

1003

Cleavage

a rapid series of celldivision, but no cell growth

In mammals cleavage is rotational:
First cell division is parallel to the animal–vegetal axis; yields two blastomeres.

In second division two blastomeres divide at right angles to each other;one is parallel to the axis and the other is perpendicular to it. This pattern of division is unique to mammals with placentas.

1004

Compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells

Key to eukaryotic cell function

Each organelle/ compartment has specific role defined by chemical processes

Membranes surrounding these molecules keep away inappropriate molecules and also act as traffic regulators for raw materials into and out of the organelle

1005

Spina bifida

failure of the neural tube to fuse in a posterior region dueto vitamin B deficiency

1006

Connect of artery to vein

Artery, arteriole, capillaries, venue, vein

1007

Steps in neurulation

•  The ectoderm over the notochord thickens and forms the neural plate.

•  Edges of the neural plate fold and a deep groove forms.

•  The folds fuse, forming the neural tube and a layer of ectoderm, The anterior end of the neural tube becomes the brain, the rest becomes the spinal cord

1008

Cyclic electron transport

Electron from excited P700 chlorophyll molecule n photosystem one cycles back to the same chlorophyll molecule

Involves a series of exergonic redox reactions, the released energy creates a proton gradient that is used to synthesize ATP

1009

Cellular respiration

Production of ATP

1010

prostate gland

produces the thin, milky fluid thatmakes up the rest of the volume of semen


Prostate fluid makes the uterine environment morehospitable to sperm and converts the semen, by
enzyme action on the fibrinogen, into a gelatinous
mass

1011

Inspiration

Diaphragm- Lungs physically sit on diaphragm, main muscle for respiration, pushes down during inspiration

External intercostal muscles- contact and push down

1012

How Are Gases Transported?

•  Once in the blood, oxygen is transported in two ways

–  1.5% is dissolved in the plasma and cytosol of erythrocytes

–  98.5 % Bound to hemoglobin

1013

Hormonal mechanism

Endocrine organs are put into action by other hormones

1014

Heart beat

The closing of one set of valves after another

1015

Monocytes/macrophages

Monocytes are inactive form, on patrol, macrophages are active, they attack

Engulf and digest

Activate T cells

Once monocytes enter tissue they become macrophages

1016

Glycogen

Storage of glucose in animals
Highly branched

1017

GnRH

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

Stimulates release of FSH/LH

1018

Nuclear lamina

Meshwork of proteins which maintains the shape of the nuclear envelope and the nucleus

1019

Calvin cycle stimulated by light

Protons pumped form stroma into thylakoids, increasing the pH which favors the activation of rubisco

Electron flow from photosystem one reduces disulfide bonds to activate calvin cycle enzymes

1020

Autoimmune disease

Immune system turned against you, attacks a particular tissue

-diabetes type 1: attacks beta cells that produce insulin

-multiple sclerosis: attacks myelin, slows electrical activities

-rheumatoid arthritis: attacks joints

1021

Chorionic villus sampling

tissue isremoved from the chorion after the eighth week

1022

Tunica externa

Connective tissue with elastic and collagen fibers

1023

Homeostasis

Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal environment (sodium level glucose level, pH level, temperature)

The internal environment consists of the interstitial fluid that bathes every cell

Cells exchange materials with their environment

1024

Organization of the immune system

Nonspecific immune response- protects against foreign substances without having to recognize their identity

Specific immune response- highly specific, usually a major problem that your body is really trying to fight

1025

Movement of membrane proteins

Some can move freely within the bilayer, some anchored to a specific region

When cells are fused experimentally some proteins from each cell distribute themselves uniformly around the membrane

1026

Air composition

78.1% nitrogen (goes into lungs and leaves), 20.9% oxygen

Total atmospheric pressure= 760 mmHg (Pressure= concentration)- Patm = PN2 + PO2

Temperature and altitude changes atmospheric pressure

Partial pressure of N2 = 760 mmHg x 0.781 ~ 600 mmHg

Partial pressure of O2 = 760 mmHg x 0.21 ~ 160mmHg

We breathe very easily, so partial pressure in lungs should be lower, so process of diffusion is easy. 100 mm mercury

1027

Cristae

Folds of the inner membrane give rise to these

Contains large protein molecules used in cellular respiration

1028

Macrophages in alveoli

Ward against foreign bodies, get rid of debris

1029

Antenna systems

Pigments arranged in these

Also called light harvesting complexes

1030

Mitochondria

Converts potential energy of fuel molecules into form that cell can use (ATP)

Outer lipid bilayer and highly folded inner membrane

1031

Stoma

Mouth of plant

Co2 enters and O2/water exit through these pores

1032

Resolution

Limiting factor in all microscopes, need high resolution to see detail

1033

Morula

the embryo as a solid ball ofsmall cells. (from Latin for mulberry)

1034

Morula

the embryo as a solid ball ofsmall cells. (from Latin for mulberry)

1035

Vasodilation & Increased Permeability

• Histamine causes vasodilation
– increases diameter, Increase in blood flow to infected area
– Redness occurs
– Increase delivery of proteins
– Edema occurs- swelling, fluid from blood cells into interstitial tissue

• increased permeability- proteins gain entry from blood to interstitial fluid

• objective- get more immune cells

1036

Morula

the embryo as a solid ball ofsmall cells. (from Latin for mulberry)

1037

Ingredients for photosynthesis

Co2 reduced to sugars that travel throughout the plant body

Water up taken by roots

Water and oxygen released

1038

Transmural pressure

The pressure difference between two membranes

1039

trophoblast

•  In mammals, the first extraembryonic membrane to form is the trophoblast.

•  When the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida, the trophoblast cells attach to the uterine wall, This is the beginning of implantation.

•  The trophoblast becomes part of the uterine wall, and sends out villi to increase surface area and contact with maternal blood.

1040

How Are Gases Transported?

•  Once in the blood, oxygen is transported in two ways

–  1.5% is dissolved in the plasma and cytosol of erythrocytes

–  98.5 % Bound to hemoglobin

1041

Densities of H2O at various states

Water>ice>vapor

1042

Aorta

Delivers oxygenated blood from left ventricle to body

Biggest blood vessel in body

1043

How do we study organelles?

First studied using light microscopy

Cell fractionation separates organelles for study by chemical methods (spin tubes of cells with rotor)

1044

Antenna systems

Pigments arranged in these

Also called light harvesting complexes

1045

Temporal lobe

Primary auditory cortex- hearing

Vision-visual association area for facial recognition

Olfaction

1046

Fertilization

Fertilization is the union of haploid sperm and haploid egg to produce a single diploid cell, the zygote

1047

clitoris

the anatomical analog of the male penis that is capable of erection and is highly sensitive to sexual stimulation

Both the labia minora and clitoris become engorgedwith blood during sexual stimulation

1048

Nonspecific immunity

Prevention

Attack- if it gets in the circulatory system

1049

Accessory pigments

Transfer energy absorbed to chorophylls

Carotenoids and phycobilins

Absorb intermediate between red and blue

1050

Cyclic electron transport

Electron from excited P700 chlorophyll molecule n photosystem one cycles back to the same chlorophyll molecule

Involves a series of exergonic redox reactions, the released energy creates a proton gradient that is used to synthesize ATP

1051

Rigor Mortis

Muscles are stiff, myosin remains attatched to actin because there is no ATP to unbind it

1052

Hyperpolarizing potential

Negative ion goes to postsynaptic cell

Inhibitory synapse

1053

Sterile cotton swab

Collect microorganisms by smearing on surface

Put on a culture dish with solution called tryptic soy agar, which has nutrients that make bacteria reproduce so you can see them

1054

Path of zygote

•  Still in the oviduct, the zygote divides to become a blastocyst and continues down the oviduct.

•  In the uterus, the blastocyst attaches to the wall lining called the endometrium.

1055

Gas transport through membranes

Oxygen has to cross alveoli and membrane of the capillaries to get into the plasma, and then another membrane to get inside the red blood cells

Loading phase- hemoglobin picks up oxygen

Unloading phase- release oxygen into your tissues to use, takes into mitochondria to produce ATP

1056

Calvin and benson

Used 14C radioisotope to determine the sequence of reactions in CO2 fixation

Exposed chlorella to 14CO2 then extracted the organic compounds and separated them by paper chromatography

3 second exposure of chlorella to 14CO2 revealed that the first compound to be formed is 3PG, a 3 carbon sugar phosphate

1057

Anencephaly

failure of the neural tube to close at the anterior end and no forebrain develops

1058

Pressure change

Breathing associated with skeletal muscles that are constantly contracting and relaxing, gases are quantified by pressur

Atmospheric pressure (Patm)- pressure on the outside in the environment

Alveolar pressure (Palv)-pressure inside your lungs

Intrapleural pressure (Pip)- pressure in pleural sac, fills up with fluid that exerts pressure

Alveolar and interpleural pressure are constantly fluctuating because they depend on your state

1059

Action spectrum

Plot of biological activity as a function of exposure to varied wavelengths of light

1060

Allergy

Overactive or disproportionate immune system

Chemicals released

Anti histamine can be used (because histamine is the alarm)

1061

Leydig cells

Male sex hormones are produced by clusters of Leydig cells lying between the seminiferous tubules.

1062

Actin

Actin is globular protein that polymerizes to form an intertwined helix

binding site is on actin molecules with attachment for myosin crossbridge

1063

Photo system 1

Light energy reduces NADP+ to NADPH

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P700 absorbs in the 700nm range

1064

Pulmonary circulation

Short distance circuit

Delivers deoxygenated (blood never has absolutely no oxygen) blood from the heart to the lungs

1065

Sarcomere

Thick and thin filaments, alternating proteins

Force come from interactions between thick and thin filaments

Z line is boundary of sarcomere

1066

Allostery

Shapes exist in more than one shape

Active- can bind substrate

Inactive- cannot bind substrate but can bind inhibitor

Most allosteric enzymes are proteins with quaternary structure

1067

Twinning

•  If blastomeres separate into two groups, each can produce an embryo.

•  Monozygotic twins come from the same zygote and are identical.

•  Nonidentical twins are from two eggs fertilized by two sperm.

1068

Vasodilation & Increased Permeability

• Histamine causes vasodilation
– increases diameter, Increase in blood flow to infected area
– Redness occurs
– Increase delivery of proteins
– Edema occurs- swelling, fluid from blood cells into interstitial tissue

• increased permeability- proteins gain entry from blood to interstitial fluid

• objective- get more immune cells

1069

Intermediate filaments

Fund in multicellular organisms, form rope like structures in cells

Stabilize cell strucuture and resist tension

Can maintain the positions of organelles

Lamins provide structural support to the nuclear membrane

1070

Photosynthesis

"synthesis from light"

Plants take in CO2, produce carbohydrates, and release O2 and water

Light is required

6CO2 + 12H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

1071

Bacteria

Unicellular prokaryotes

1072

Barriers to infection

Physical barriers

Chemical barriers

Reflexes

1073

Phagocytosis

Attatchment (opsonization)- Physically bind to pathogen

Internalization, turns into phagosome

Degradation- Fuses with lysosome and becomes phagolysosome, and after the digestive enzymes can be reused

Exocytosis- elimination of debris

1074

Anencephaly

failure of the neural tube to close at the anterior end and no forebrain develops

1075

Barriers to infection

Physical barriers

Chemical barriers

Reflexes

1076

Components of homeostatic system

•  Receptors
–  Provide information about specific conditions
•  Control Center
–  Evaluates the information from receptors
–  Set point
•  Effectors
–  Respond to restore the deviation from the setvalues of the internal environment

1077

Electron microscope

Use electromagnets to focus an electron beam, wavelength is much shorter than light so much higher resolution .5 nm

1078

Chemical barriers

Sebum- oily acidic substance released from sebaceous glands

Lacrimal glands- tears protect sclera and cornea, dripping through nasal cavity, washing of the eye

Lysozymes- degrading/digestive enzymes secreted from the mucous membranes

Defensins- peptides secreted from the mucous membranes

Ear wax- things get stuck

Sweat- cools body and at same time destroys microorganisms on skin, B.O. Is the degradation of bacteria on skin

Macrophages- immune cells

Stomach acid- HCl, damaging

Saliva

1079

uterine cycle

•  The uterine cycle parallels the ovarian cycle and involves the buildup, then breakdown, of the endometrium.

•  About five days into the ovarian cycle, the endometrium builds in preparation for the blastocyst.

•  About five days after ovulation, the uterus is maximally prepared and stays that way for another nine days.

•  If the blastocyst does not arrive by then, the endometrium breaks down and sloughs off during menstruation.

1080

Peptide linkage

Condensation reactions between amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another

Synthesizes proteins

1081

Extracellular destruction: complement

• Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
– Embeds itself in the microbe membrane, forming pores
– Water and salt enter the microbe

Proteins released by liver to do the job: complement system

1082

Blastocyst

When blastula reaches 16 to 32 cells, it divides into two groups:

•  Inner cell mass: becomes the embryo

•  Trophoblast: a sac that forms from the outer cells. Its cells secrete fluid and create the blastocoel, with the inner cell mass at one end. Embryo is now called a blastocyst.

1083

Alveolar type II cells

Secrete surfactant which keeps the alveoli from collapsing

1084

urethra

the common duct for urinary and reproductive systems

1085

Lymphoid tissues

Adenoids, tonsils, thymus, lymph noes, spleen, bone marrow, lymphatic vessels

Immune cells originate here, majorly from bone marrow

immune cells are scattered all over, but they are clustered in certain areas in case of infection

1086

Functions of the extracellular matrix

Holds cells together in tissues

Contributes to physical properties of tissue

Helps filter material passing between tissues

Helps orient cell movement

Role in chemical signaling

1087

Photosystem

Multiple antenna systems, surround reaction centers

Pigments packed together on thylakoids membrane proteins

Excitation energy passes from the pigments that absorb short wavelengths to those that absorb longer wavelengths, and ends up in the reaction center pigment

1088

Allergy

Overactive or disproportionate immune system

Chemicals released

Anti histamine can be used (because histamine is the alarm)

1089

Genome

Complete set of DNA in a living organism

1090

Erections

sexually aroused male’s autonomic nervous system causes penis blood vessel dilation. The nerve endings release nitric oxide, (NO, a gas) a neurotransmitter that stimulates the production of cGMP a second messenger that acts on the blood vessels

This swells the spongy, erectile tissue and compresses the blood flow from the penis

1091

Transmural pressure

The pressure difference between two membranes

1092

Photosystem 2

Light energy oxidizes water to oxygen, H+, and electrons

Reaction center has chlorophyll a molecules: P680 absorbs at 680 nm (more energetic than P700)

Excited first

1093

Absorption spectrum

Plot of wavelengths absorbed by a pigment

1094

G3P

Gylceraldehyde 3 phosphate

5/6 recycled into RuBP

1/6 converted to starch and sucrose to make glucose and fructose

1095

Sharp object penetrating skin

Easiest way to get infected by a pathogen

Some cells are already in the vicinity, they destroy and then call for back up

1096

Lysosomes

Vesicles containing digestive enzymes that come in part from the Golgi

Sites for breakdown of food and foreign material brought into the cell by phagocytosis

Detection of spent cellular components- autophagy- cell components are frequently destroyed and replaced with new ones

1097

Fungi

Yeast is a unicellular form

Ex: athlete's foot

1098

Chorionic villus sampling

tissue isremoved from the chorion after the eighth week

1099

Acid base catalysis

Enzyme side chains transfer H+ to or from the substrate to break a covalent bond

1100

Air composition

78.1% nitrogen (goes into lungs and leaves), 20.9% oxygen

Total atmospheric pressure= 760 mmHg (Pressure= concentration)- Patm = PN2 + PO2

Temperature and altitude changes atmospheric pressure

Partial pressure of N2 = 760 mmHg x 0.781 ~ 600 mmHg

Partial pressure of O2 = 760 mmHg x 0.21 ~ 160mmHg

We breathe very easily, so partial pressure in lungs should be lower, so process of diffusion is easy. 100 mm mercury

1101

Diffusion rate depends on

Diameter of molecules or ions

Temperature of solution

Concentration gradient

1102

Movement of membrane proteins

Some can move freely within the bilayer, some anchored to a specific region

When cells are fused experimentally some proteins from each cell distribute themselves uniformly around the membrane

1103

Allergy

Overactive or disproportionate immune system

Chemicals released

Anti histamine can be used (because histamine is the alarm)

1104

Path of the egg

the mature egg is released into the body cavity and is swept into the end of the oviduct (Fallopian tube) by an undulating fringe of tissue (Fertilization takes place in the oviduct and, in humans, the second meiotic division takes place)

Cilia lining the oviduct propel the fertilized or unfertilized egg toward the uterus, a muscular, thick-walled cavity

The opening at the bottom of the uterus is the cervix,which leads into the vagina

1105

labia majora and labia minora

The external opening of the vagina has two sets of folded skin, the labia majora and labia minora, which also surround the urethra

Labia majora equivalent of scrotum

Lania minora becomes engorged with blood

1106

Lymphoid tissues

Adenoids, tonsils, thymus, lymph noes, spleen, bone marrow, lymphatic vessels

Immune cells originate here, majorly from bone marrow

immune cells are scattered all over, but they are clustered in certain areas in case of infection

1107

Sodium-potassium pump

Primary active transport, found in all animal cells

Pump is an integral membrane glycoprotein that is an antiporter

Gets 3 sodium ions out and 2 potassium ions in by hydrolyzing ATP

1108

Active transport

Moves substances against a concentration or electrical gradient, it requires energy (often ATP)

1109

Compliance

Ability to change volume and pressure

Balloon is like the lungs- highly compliant

Paper bag- not compliant

1110

Muscles of Expiration

•  Passive expiration
–  Elastic recoil of the lungs

•  Active expiration
–  Contraction of internal intercostals
–  Contraction of abdominal muscles (causesdiaphragm to be pushed up)

1111

Nuclear lamina

Meshwork of proteins which maintains the shape of the nuclear envelope and the nucleus

1112

Where does the muscle get the energy from?

Many mitochondria in muscles to keep up with the energy demand

Get glucose and oxygen to produce energy

Three sources: creatine phosphate (limited short term source of energy, immediately available and only lasts about 1 second), cellular respiration (until O2 debt,more oxygen needed than had), glycolysis followed by fermentation, and then fatigue hits

1113

Photosynthesis in noncyclic electron electron transport

Each photosystem consists of several chlorophyll and accessory pigment molecules

Complement each other, must be constantly absorbing light energy to power noncyclic electron transport

1114

Non polar covalent bond

Share electrons equally

1115

Phospholipid movement in the bilayer

Lateral diffusion, flexing, and rotation but no flip flop

1116

Lipids absorption

•  Can easily permeate through the plasma membrane, tightly controlled so it doesn't pass freely, bile salt packages glycerol and fatty acids into micelles - lipoprotein vehicle that is hydrophilic on the outside and hydrophobic on the inside, allows it to move into the small intestine cells

•  Once micelles approach the apical side of the epithelial cell membrane, the glycerol and fatty acid passively diffuse into the cell

•  The glycerol and fatty acid are then resynthesized into triglycerides and packaged into a lipoprotein known as chylomicrons- large vesicles that cannot fit into the capillaries, does not go into the blood immediately

•  Chylomicrons are then exocytosed into the lymphatic system which has fluid in its own circulation and vessels that are more permeable, eventually drain into superior vena cava and ends up in circulation, liver sorts and ships these lipids

1117

Interneurons

Connect neurons within the CNS, processes

1118

GH

Growth hormone

Promotes growth

Target organ: muscles, liver, bones, etc

1119

Lumen

Cavity within blood vessel

1120

Electrocardiogram graph

P wave- atrial depolarization(contraction) and electrical activities

QRS- Ventricular depolarization/contraction, much higher than atrial contraction because atria only have to pump to ventricle, but ventricle has to pump far

T- ventricular repolarization

1121

Tight junctions

Prevent substances from moving through spaces between cells

Barrier to diffusion of proteins within the lipid bilayer so it defines functional regions

1122

Rubisco

Enzyme that catalyzes fixation of CO2

Ribosome bisphosphate carboxylase/

Most abundant protein in the world, 50% of the protein in a leaf

1123

Absorption spectrum

Plot of wavelengths absorbed by a pigment

1124

Compliance

Ability to change volume and pressure

Balloon is like the lungs- highly compliant

Paper bag- not compliant

1125

Vacuoles

In plant and protist cells

Store waste products and toxic compounds; some may deter herbivores

Provides structure for plant cells, water enters by osmosis and creates turbot pressure

Stores anthocyanins(pigment) in flowers/fruit to attract pollinators

Digestive enzymes to hydrolyze stored food for early growth

1126

Cleavage

a rapid series of celldivision, but no cell growth

In mammals cleavage is rotational:
First cell division is parallel to the animal–vegetal axis; yields two blastomeres.

In second division two blastomeres divide at right angles to each other;one is parallel to the axis and the other is perpendicular to it. This pattern of division is unique to mammals with placentas.

1127

Thylakoids

The way internal membranes are arranged in chloroplasts, thylakoids make stacks called grana

These membranes contain chlorophyll and other pigments

1128

Concentration of ions against the neuronal membrane

Na: Extracellular 150mM, intracellular 15mM

K: Extracellular 5 mM, intracellular 140 mM

1129

Nuclear pores

In the nuclear envelope, connect the interior of the nucleus with the rest of the cytoplasm

Pore complex- 8 large protein granules surround each pore

RNA and proteins must pass through these pores to enter or leave the nucleus

1130

How is Carbon Dioxide Transported?

5-6% dissolved in plasma

5-8% bind to hemoglobin at a different binding site than oxygen

86-90% converted to hydrogen ions and bicarbonate by enzyme called carbonic anhydrase. When co2 goes up hydrogen ions go up and ph decreases, and vice versa. Want ph of 7.4

1131

How is polypeptide chain organized?

Like a sentence- "capital letter" is like the amino group of the first amino acid, and the "period" is like the carboxyl group of the last amino acid

1132

Non cyclic electron transport