Flashcards in Translation Deck (51):
Transcribing rRNA genes
• Produces three rRNAs
• Assembly requires a very large number of non ribosomal components
Ribosomal RNA gene is repeated, when transcription begins, multiple mrnas all at the same time. ribosomes made quickly. want plenty of ribosomes available to make proteins. Ribosome is many proteins
RNA Pol I translates 3 subunits, 5S subunit by RNA Pol III
What is a ribosome composed of?
Ribosome is composed of many proteins and ribosomal RNA. Ribosomal RNA can form RNA RNA hybrids between mRNAs and tRNAs during initiation of translation
Ribosomes made in nucleus. Certain proteins associated with it, then some of those proteins will move away. Ribosomes move closer to the cytoplasm, as they move through the nucleolus they are associated with different proteins, then move out to the cytoplasm and associated with more proteins.
Refers to sedimentation, how quickly it's spun to the bottom of tube- how heavy it is
Are ribosomes enzymes?
Yes, ribosome has enzymatic activity, region that catalyzes reaction for peptide bond formation in between amino acids. Spliceosome is also considered a ribozyme, has RNA and makes RNA RNA hybrids.
Membrane bound ribosomes
Produce proteins that will be used in the plasma membrane or will be secreted from the cell
Typically membrane bound. rough ER membrane is continuous with the nuclear membrane, ribosomes give it studded appearance. Proteins translated on rough er usually have transmembrane regions, will be transported out to the cellular membrane, or they will be secreted from the cell. Things usually modified in rough er, lipids added in smooth er, Golgi collects up similar proteins and anchors them to a secretory vesicle and then exported to the cellular membrane
– Produce proteins to be used in the cytosol
– Highly reducing environment in side the cell
Cytosolic proteins are going to be used in the cell. No disulfide because of the reducing environment
Ribosomes and signal peptides
Mrnas meant to be translated in the roughER have signal peptide.
Once they bind to a ribosome it starts the amino acids, and the first few AA in the peptide will be a signal peptide sent to signal recognition particle, which binds to it. Conformational recognition.
Then binds to a receptor in rough ER, protein made, translated, and fed into the lumen of the rough ER. Proteolytic processing removes the signal peptide. Once small subunit disassociates, can go back to the cytosol and translate more
How does an mRNA triplet specify an amino acid?
• How would a nucleicacid base interact with an amino acid incapable of forming H bonds?
Experiment: are amino acids that are attached to tRNA molecules transferred to proteins?
Radioactive leucine attached
Add aminoacyl tRNA to in vitro translation system, included mRNA(something to be read) and ribosomes (something to read)
Radioactive amino acids found in proteins
Conclusion: aminoacyl tRNAs transfer amino acids to growing polypeptide chains
tRNA + aminoacid
• A tRNA covalently linked to an aminoacid is called an aminoacyl tRNA
Linked through enzyme called aminoacylsynthetase.
Accidental Adapter Finding
Accidental Adapter Finding
• Researchers working in a cell free protein synthesis system found that a few things were needed: ribosomes, mRNA, amino acids, ATP, and GTP
• It wouldn’t work unless they included a cellular fraction - without this fraction protein synthesis would not occur (in the fraction was tRNAs
How is the secondary structure of RNA made?
Stems are created by hydrogen bonding between complimentary base pairs
Loops consist of unpaired bases
What do modified bases do?
Modified bases important in tRNA recognition by aminoacyl trna synthetase
The structure of a tRNA
All tRNAs about 70-80 base pairs
Pots transcriptional modifications to bases in tRNA
The loop at the base is always formed of seven nucleotides, the middle three are the anticodon
Acceptor arm and variable region
3' end, free OH where the AA will be bound to the tRNA
Variable arm important for recognition by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase
3 positions vary in which bases are there, but recognizes codon on mRNA and dictates which amino acid should be incorporated into the growing polypeptide
tRNA tertiary structure
(One end attaches AA, one is the anti codon)
Activation of tRNA’s
• Each tRNA must be attachedto the proper amino acid (If tRNA is carrying amino acid, we call it charged, or activated, loaded)
• Process is mediated by aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase
• Recognition of tRNA by aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase
– Anticodon is of major importance
– Enzyme has a pocket for the anticodon
– There are also other sites that help with recognition (length of variable arm, modified bases)
Reactions of tRNA with the enzyme
Active site on aminoacyl tRNA synthetase binds ATP and amino acid by an ester bond (enzyme specific to one amino acid)
Reaction leaves AMP and amino acid bound to enzyme and two phosphate groups are released. "Activated" amino acid has high potential energy
Activated amino acid transferred from tRNA synthetase to the tRNA specific to the amino acid, resulting in aminoacyl tRNA which is ready for translation
Where exactly is the amino acid added on the tRNA?
Depending which oh aa is added to, class two or class one. Class two goes onto 3' carbon, class one goes onto the 2' carbon
The Genetic Code
• Have an mRNA that is carrying a message, that message has to be decoded
• The “code” for amino acids are nucleotide triplets
• The code is non-overlapping (3 adjacent codons)
• Have 4^3 = 64 possible combinations to code for amino acids, but there are only 20 amino acids
Conclusion: The DNA code is degenerate
Wobble at the the third position
• One tRNA can recognize more than one codon - wobble at the third position. There's only 3bp so there's nothing to recognize change in geometry. Not like continuous DNA strand. U/G base pair is not a bad match
• Two codons that specify the same amino acid and only differ at the third position, should use the same tRNA in protein synthesis
tRNA matched up opposite to mRNA (3' to 5')
What is base "I"?
I is deaminated adenine. Only found on tRNAs, perfectly good. Base analog, binds with U, C or A
Translation Occurs in Three steps
Initiation - finding the start codon and assembling the ribosomal subunits
Elongation - reading the mRNA sequence and polymerizing the corresponding amino acids
Termination - recognition of the stop codonand release of the polypeptide
Ribosome subunits in prokaryotes
Each subunit is composed of a set of proteins complexed with one or more ribosomal RNAs.
The large subunit also has an accessory RNA
The large rRNA molecule in each ribosome sequentially binds the aminoacylated ends of the incoming tRNAs and catalyzes peptide bond formation
Together the subunits are 70s
Small subunit in prokaryotes
16s RNA + proteins = 30s
Large subunit in prokaryotes
23s RNA + 5s RNA + proteins = 50s
5 and 23 transcribed by different polymerases
• Small ribosomal unit will bind to the start codon AUG, tRNAfMet comes in after
• Shine-Dalgarno sequence recognized
• Initiation Factors
Uac anticodon binds. If3 and if1 leave, ribosomal assembles
Prokaryotic start codon
tRNA bound to methionine must enter that site
resides 5-10 nucleotides before the start codon, recognized by 16S of the small subunit
In mRNA there is an aggagg, compliment to ribosomal RNA in small subunit. This is a recognition sequence that dictates where the ribosome will sit on mRNA.
IF1 and IF3
One and three keep the small and large ribosomal unit separated. Channels that go through the whole ribosome and in order for them to make the correct conformation they have to assemble on the mRNA a specific order. If the small and large were bound they couldn't recognize the sequence
If2 bound to gtp sit down on the codon and brings in the first tRNA. tRNA is bound to n-formylmethionine.
Difference in eukaryotic translation
• Transcription and translation are coupled in prokaryotes (no introns, as long as there is enough mRNA out of pol II the ribosome will assemble)
• A eukaryotic mRNA is already fully processed- Not coupled, mRNA has to be transported out of the nuclear pores and into the cytoplasm. When in cytoplasm then bound to ribosome to be translated
– May have folded into secondary or tertiary conformations
– Coated in RNA binding proteins
The 5’ cap and polyA tail play an important role in translation
Initiation proteins recognize the mRNA 5'-5' cap (eIF4E)
Protein factors bind the small ribosomal subunit (40s)
Poly A binding protein recognizes the mRNA tail (PABP)
eIF4A scans for start codon (AUG)
Secondary structures in mRNA that are recognized by initiation factors
IRES (site of secondary structure), allows translation to begin in the middle of the mRNA
eLF4A scans for start codon
PABP recognizes poly A tail
Other things about eukaryotic translation
40s subunit with eIF3 and eIF1A, eLF2-GTP, and the tRNA make up the 43s complex
PABP, eIF4G, eIF4A the mRNA and eIF4G (cap dependent only) make up mRNA complex
• eIF3 and eIF4G bring the two together, keep subunits from binding too early
• Once the 43S complex has bound the mRNA it willscan for the appropriate AUG start codon
• In eukaryotes the Kozak sequence (5’-CCACCAUGC – 3’) is a conserved sequence
containing the start codon
tRNA Binding Sites
There is always a free codon to bind to the tRNA
• A Site - holds the Aminoacyl tRNA (already been charged)
• P Site - holds the Peptidyl tRNA. Also first charged trna with methionine with tRNA has to be there because p site has peptidyl transferase activity. Catalyzes formation of peptide bond, which goes from AA in p site to AA on tRNA in a site. AA attatched to tRNA in p site will be transferred through peptide bond to AA joined to tRNA in a site
• E Site - holds exiting uncharged tRNA after release from mRNA
• EFTu - brings in each new Aminoacyl tRNA to the A site. Only h bonds keep appropriate tRNA in the A site. Then peptidyl transferase activity can happen
• EFG - drives the translocation step after peptidyl transfer. Peptidyl transferase activity and then peptide bond formed between the two amino acids. Now AA in p site is uncharged and joined to AA in a site. Shift down one codon, methionine trna is in e site, and it exits. Now Dipeptide in p site. Another charged tRNA comes into the a site.
( Both hydrolyze GTP)
• EFTu is recycled by EFTs
What happens to the deacetylated tRNA when you release it?
Leaves to interact with enzyme again
• RF1 recognizes UAG and UAA. RF2 recognizes UGA and UAA. (Remember the codon table)
• Both require the GTPase RF3 (enhances the other two releasing factors).
What happens after the binding of release factors?
• After binding of RF1 or 2 with RF3-GTP into the A site
1. GTP is hydrolyzed, the subunits are separated(no more peptidyl transferase activity)
2. the new polypeptide is cleaved from the tRNA.
• The large and small subunit are released and all of these components can then be recycled to begin translation of the next polypeptide.
When does translation begin in bacteria?
In bacteria, ribosomes begin translating mRNA while the mRNA is being synthesized
When does translation begin in eukaryotes?
Intron splicing occurring at the same time that mRNA is being made, then processed and translated.
How many ribosomes can translate one mRNA?
Several ribosomes can translate one mRNA simultaneously
What is a protein's orientation with the mRNA?
• The 5’ to 3’ polarity of the mRNA corresponds to the N to C polarity of the protein.
• Ribosomes translate themRNA from 5’ to 3’, synthesizing the protein from the N-terminus to the C-terminus
• Polypeptides grow by addition of amino acids one at a time to the C-terminal end of the growing polypeptide chain.
• Polypeptides are synthesized N-terminus to C-terminus
What is the direction of replication, transcription, and translation?
• DNA synthesis is 5’ to 3’
• RNA synthesis is 5’ to 3’
• Ribosomes move on mRNA in the 5’ to 3’ direction.
What roles does RNA play in protein synthesis?
• 16s rRNA attracts mRNA through RNA-RNA interaction. Need to locate shine dalgarno, complimentary rRNA and mRNA. They base pair and small subunit stays there, then aug is start codon
• tRNA makes direct contacts with 16s and 23srRNAs.
• peptidyl transfer reaction is catalyzed by 23s rRNA. Peptide synthesis is RNA-mediated.