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Flashcards in Lung Infections Deck (90)
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1

Which organism is responsible for annal winter epidemics of flu?

Influenza A

2

Which organism is the predominant bacterial cause of CAP?

Strep pneumoniae

3

Which organism can rarely cause a life-threatening acute epiglottitis?

Haemophilus influenzae type B

4

Which organism causes a rare type of CAP, caught from birds?

Chlamydia psittaci

5

Which organism is an uncommon cause of upper lobe CAP, especially in patients with a history of alcohol abuse?

Klebsiella pneumoniae

6

What are the three most predominant respiratory pathogens, casing the vast majority of deaths from respiratory infection worldwide?

Influenza A, strep pneumoniae and mycoplasma tuberculosis

7

Which two organisms are the major causes of acute or chronic bronchial infection in patients with COPD or bronchiectasis?

Haemophilus influenzae and moraxella catarrhalis

8

What organism is the most common cause of hospital acquired respiratory infections?

Staph aureus

9

Which respiratory pathogen is commonly found in sources of water such as air conditioning units?

Legionella pneumophila

10

Which type of organisms are associated with the production of a foul-smelling pus?

Anaerobic bacteria

11

Which type of bacteria are Legionella, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas?

Gram negative bacilli

12

Which organism is responsible for causes PCP, a pneumonia seen in immunocompromised individuals? Which broad category of organisms does this belong to?

Pneumocystis jirovecii- a fungus

13

What are some indications for treating acute COPD exacerbations with antibiotics?

New changes on CXR, increased purulence of sputum, suspicion of pneumonia

14

What are the two types of URTI which can cause life-threatening upper airway obstruction?

Diphtheria and epiglottitis

15

Which organism causes diphtheria?

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

16

Which organism causes whooping cough?

Bordetella pertussis

17

What is the empirical antibiotic therapy for a patient with severe CAP who is penicillin allergic?

Levofloxacin IV

18

What is the stepdown antibiotic therapy for all patients with severe CAP?

Doxycycline PO

19

If a patient with severe CAP is NBM, the doxycycline in the standard empirical antibiotic regime gets changed to what?

Clarithromycin IV

20

If you give clarithromycin as a treatment for CAP, you must remember to stop which other drugs?

Statins and any other drugs which prolong the QT interval

21

If consolidation hasn't resolved after 6 weeks, patients should undergo which investigation to exclude what?

Bronchoscopy to exclude bronchial obstruction caused by lung cancer

22

What is the first line empirical antibiotic regimen for non-severe aspiration pneumonia?

Amoxicillin and metronidazole PO

23

What is the second line empirical antibiotic regimen for non-severe aspiration pneumonia?

Doxycycline and metronidazole PO

24

How long should antibiotics be given for for non-severe aspiration pneumonia?

5 days

25

How long should antibiotic treatment for severe aspiration pneumonia be continued for?

7 days

26

What is the first line empirical antibiotic regimen for patients with severe aspiration pneumonia?

IV amoxicillin, metronidazole and gentamicin

27

If the treatment for severe aspiration pneumonia cannot be tolerated because of a penicillin allergy, which other antibiotics can be used instead of amoxicillin?

IV clarithromycin or PO doxycycline

28

In which URTI is a toxin responsible for forming a pharyngeal pseudo-membrane?

Diphtheria

29

How does acute bronchitis present? The presence of what feature would suggest bacterial infection?

A cough, often preceded by coryzal symptoms; the presence of purulent sputum production

30

How long does the cough associated with pertussis usually last for?

12 weeks