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Flashcards in Lung Malignancies Deck (80)
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1

What imaging investigation is used before curative surgery or radiotherapy to ensure there are no occult metastases?

PET-CT scan

2

What imaging investigation is indicated in patients with long cancer who have bony pain or increased calcium/ALP?

Isotope bone scan

3

Which broad category of lung cancer is most likely to potentially be cured?

Non-small cell lung cancers

4

What treatment options are most likely to be used in the management of non-small cell lung cancer?

Surgery and radiotherapy

5

What treatment options are most likely to be used in the management of small cell lung cancer?

Chemotherapy

6

What are the two main curative treatment options for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer?

Surgical resection, high-dose radical radiotherapy

7

Other than smoking, what are some risk factors for the development of a primary lung cancer?

Passive smoking, asbestos exposure, radiotherapy to the lungs, family history

8

Mutations in which proto-oncogene are responsible for 10-30% of lung adenocarcinomas?

K-ras

9

Epidermal growth factor (EGFR) mutations can arise in which broad category of lung cancer?

Non-small cell lung cancers

10

What are the most common respiratory symptoms of lung cancer?

Cough and haemoptysis

11

What are the most common systemic symptoms of lung cancer?

Weight loss and fatigue

12

What are some less common symptoms of lung cancer which may occur secondary to a bronchial obstruction?

Shortness of breath and wheeze

13

Why may a primary lung cancer eventually cause chest pain?

Chest wall or mediastinal invasion

14

Name some abnormal features which may occur as a result of a Pancoast tumour?

Ipsilateral Horner's syndrome and pain/weakness/paraesthesia of the hand and arm

15

Tumours in which location are more likely to cause haemoptysis- central or peripheral?

Central

16

SVC obstruction caused by a lung tumour may cause what symptoms?

Face/arm/neck swelling, dizziness, headaches, fixed and dilated neck veins

17

Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by a lung tumour will cause what symptom?

Hoarseness

18

Phrenic nerve palsy caused by a lung tumour will cause what symptom?

Worsening dyspnoea

19

What is the most common paraneoplastic syndrome experienced by patients with primary lung cancer?

Fever

20

What are some FBC abnormalities which may be seen in patients with lung cancer?

Anaemia of chronic disease and thrombocytosis

21

What paraneoplastic syndrome is commonly associated with squamous cell lung cancer?

PTH related peptide production, resulting in hypercalcaemia

22

Small cell lung cancers can result in the ectopic production of which hormones?

ADH and ACTH

23

Lambert-Eaton syndrome, causing limb weakness and autonomic dysfunction, is caused by what? Which type of lung cancer can this be associated with?

Anti-calcium channel antibodies, associated with small cell lung cancer

24

Primary lung cancers are most likely to metastasise to which lymph nodes?

Mediastinal, cervical, axillary

25

What are some organs that primary lung cancers are likely to metastasise to?

Brain, bone, liver and adrenals

26

What is the standard investigation for any smoker aged > 50 with symptoms that could possibly be caused by lung cancer?

CXR

27

What are two blood tests that may be elevated in someone with bony metastases?

ALP and calcium

28

When are pulmonary function tests indicated in the investigation of individuals with lung cancer?

In all patients being considered for curative treatment

29

Other than a CXR, what further imaging is required in all patients with suspected lung cancer?

CT chest and abdo

30

Which imaging investigation(s) is/are indicated if a patient with suspected lung cancer has any neurological symptoms or signs?

Brain CT and/or MRI