Flashcards in Lung Malignancies Deck (80)
What imaging investigation is used before curative surgery or radiotherapy to ensure there are no occult metastases?
What imaging investigation is indicated in patients with long cancer who have bony pain or increased calcium/ALP?
Isotope bone scan
Which broad category of lung cancer is most likely to potentially be cured?
Non-small cell lung cancers
What treatment options are most likely to be used in the management of non-small cell lung cancer?
Surgery and radiotherapy
What treatment options are most likely to be used in the management of small cell lung cancer?
What are the two main curative treatment options for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer?
Surgical resection, high-dose radical radiotherapy
Other than smoking, what are some risk factors for the development of a primary lung cancer?
Passive smoking, asbestos exposure, radiotherapy to the lungs, family history
Mutations in which proto-oncogene are responsible for 10-30% of lung adenocarcinomas?
Epidermal growth factor (EGFR) mutations can arise in which broad category of lung cancer?
Non-small cell lung cancers
What are the most common respiratory symptoms of lung cancer?
Cough and haemoptysis
What are the most common systemic symptoms of lung cancer?
Weight loss and fatigue
What are some less common symptoms of lung cancer which may occur secondary to a bronchial obstruction?
Shortness of breath and wheeze
Why may a primary lung cancer eventually cause chest pain?
Chest wall or mediastinal invasion
Name some abnormal features which may occur as a result of a Pancoast tumour?
Ipsilateral Horner's syndrome and pain/weakness/paraesthesia of the hand and arm
Tumours in which location are more likely to cause haemoptysis- central or peripheral?
SVC obstruction caused by a lung tumour may cause what symptoms?
Face/arm/neck swelling, dizziness, headaches, fixed and dilated neck veins
Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by a lung tumour will cause what symptom?
Phrenic nerve palsy caused by a lung tumour will cause what symptom?
What is the most common paraneoplastic syndrome experienced by patients with primary lung cancer?
What are some FBC abnormalities which may be seen in patients with lung cancer?
Anaemia of chronic disease and thrombocytosis
What paraneoplastic syndrome is commonly associated with squamous cell lung cancer?
PTH related peptide production, resulting in hypercalcaemia
Small cell lung cancers can result in the ectopic production of which hormones?
ADH and ACTH
Lambert-Eaton syndrome, causing limb weakness and autonomic dysfunction, is caused by what? Which type of lung cancer can this be associated with?
Anti-calcium channel antibodies, associated with small cell lung cancer
Primary lung cancers are most likely to metastasise to which lymph nodes?
Mediastinal, cervical, axillary
What are some organs that primary lung cancers are likely to metastasise to?
Brain, bone, liver and adrenals
What is the standard investigation for any smoker aged > 50 with symptoms that could possibly be caused by lung cancer?
What are two blood tests that may be elevated in someone with bony metastases?
ALP and calcium
When are pulmonary function tests indicated in the investigation of individuals with lung cancer?
In all patients being considered for curative treatment
Other than a CXR, what further imaging is required in all patients with suspected lung cancer?
CT chest and abdo