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Flashcards in Ventilatory Disorders Deck (31)
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1

Name some non-modifiable risk factors for development of obstructive sleep apnoea?

Male, family history, abnormal mandibular/pharyngeal anatomy

2

What are some symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea which occur during the night?

Snoring and nocturnal attacks of choking

3

Other than excessive sleepiness, what are some symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea which occur during the day?

Poor concentration, short term memory impairment, personality change

4

What are the most important long-term consequences of obstructive sleep apnoea to be aware of?

Increased risk of cardiovascular disease

5

What investigation is required to differentiate obstructive sleep apnoea from simple snoring?

Sleep study

6

What is the definitive investigation for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea?

Sleep study

7

What are the two main types of sleep study which can be used in the investigation of obstructive sleep apnoea?

Overnight oximetry, polysomnography

8

What is the definition of apnoea?

An interval of > 10 seconds between breaths

9

An apnoea/hypopnoea index of more than what suggests severe obstructive sleep apnoea?

> 30

10

What is the definitive treatment option for obstructive sleep apnoea?

Lose weight

11

What are the driving rules regarding obstructive sleep apnoea?

Must inform the DVLA of the diagnosis, don't drive if feeling sleepy

12

What investigations are necessary to diagnose obesity hypoventilation syndrome?

Sleep study and ABG

13

What will pulmonary function tests done in obesity hypoventilation syndrome show?

Restrictive lung defect with preserved transfer factor

14

What is the main treatment for obesity hypoventilation syndrome?

Lose weight

15

Should CPAP be used in the treatment of obesity hypoventilation syndrome?

No (exacerbates hypercapnia)

16

Neuromuscular diseases and chest wall abnormalities can lead to which type of respiratory failure?

Type II

17

What is the respiratory management of neuromuscular diseases and chest wall abnormalities?

Overnight non-invasive ventilation

18

What mechanical treatment can be used in patients with mild obstructive sleep apnoea?

Mandibular advancement device

19

What mechanical treatment can be used in patients with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnoea?

Nocturnal CPAP

20

The significant under-ventilation which occurs in obesity hypoventilation syndrome can lead to the development of what?

Type II respiratory failure

21

Name some features of obesity hypoventilation syndrome which overlap with obstructive sleep apnoea?

Hypersomnolence, memory/concentration problems, personality changes

22

Patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome often have daytime hypercapnia- what are some potential symptoms of this?

Early morning headaches and drowsiness

23

What scoring system is used to assess the severity of sleepiness symptoms in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea?

Epworth sleepiness scale

24

What scoring system is used to grade the pharyngeal appearance in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea?

Mallampati score

25

Which two blood tests are most important to perform in someone with suspected sleep apnoea and why?

TFTs to screen for hypothyroidism and FBC to identify polycythaemia

26

What investigations should be performed in someone with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea to rule out underlying lung disease?

Spirometry and CXR

27

What are the two main causes of ventilatory failure?

Obesity and neuromuscular diseases

28

Why do the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea occur?

Repeated partial or total collapse of the airways during sleep

29

What are the two main modifiable risk factors for the development of obstructive sleep apnoea?

Obesity and increased collar size

30

What are some medical conditions that can increase the risk of developing obstructive sleep apnoea?

Hypothyroidism, nasal polyps and diabetes