Flashcards in Ventilatory Disorders Deck (31)
Name some non-modifiable risk factors for development of obstructive sleep apnoea?
Male, family history, abnormal mandibular/pharyngeal anatomy
What are some symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea which occur during the night?
Snoring and nocturnal attacks of choking
Other than excessive sleepiness, what are some symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea which occur during the day?
Poor concentration, short term memory impairment, personality change
What are the most important long-term consequences of obstructive sleep apnoea to be aware of?
Increased risk of cardiovascular disease
What investigation is required to differentiate obstructive sleep apnoea from simple snoring?
What is the definitive investigation for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea?
What are the two main types of sleep study which can be used in the investigation of obstructive sleep apnoea?
Overnight oximetry, polysomnography
What is the definition of apnoea?
An interval of > 10 seconds between breaths
An apnoea/hypopnoea index of more than what suggests severe obstructive sleep apnoea?
What is the definitive treatment option for obstructive sleep apnoea?
What are the driving rules regarding obstructive sleep apnoea?
Must inform the DVLA of the diagnosis, don't drive if feeling sleepy
What investigations are necessary to diagnose obesity hypoventilation syndrome?
Sleep study and ABG
What will pulmonary function tests done in obesity hypoventilation syndrome show?
Restrictive lung defect with preserved transfer factor
What is the main treatment for obesity hypoventilation syndrome?
Should CPAP be used in the treatment of obesity hypoventilation syndrome?
No (exacerbates hypercapnia)
Neuromuscular diseases and chest wall abnormalities can lead to which type of respiratory failure?
What is the respiratory management of neuromuscular diseases and chest wall abnormalities?
Overnight non-invasive ventilation
What mechanical treatment can be used in patients with mild obstructive sleep apnoea?
Mandibular advancement device
What mechanical treatment can be used in patients with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnoea?
The significant under-ventilation which occurs in obesity hypoventilation syndrome can lead to the development of what?
Type II respiratory failure
Name some features of obesity hypoventilation syndrome which overlap with obstructive sleep apnoea?
Hypersomnolence, memory/concentration problems, personality changes
Patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome often have daytime hypercapnia- what are some potential symptoms of this?
Early morning headaches and drowsiness
What scoring system is used to assess the severity of sleepiness symptoms in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea?
Epworth sleepiness scale
What scoring system is used to grade the pharyngeal appearance in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea?
Which two blood tests are most important to perform in someone with suspected sleep apnoea and why?
TFTs to screen for hypothyroidism and FBC to identify polycythaemia
What investigations should be performed in someone with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea to rule out underlying lung disease?
Spirometry and CXR
What are the two main causes of ventilatory failure?
Obesity and neuromuscular diseases
Why do the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea occur?
Repeated partial or total collapse of the airways during sleep
What are the two main modifiable risk factors for the development of obstructive sleep apnoea?
Obesity and increased collar size