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Flashcards in Interstitial Lung Disease Deck (63)
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1

What medication is most commonly used to try to prevent progression of pulmonary fibrosis?

High dose corticosteroids

2

What is the only definitive treatment option for pulmonary fibrosis, and who could receive it?

Lung transplant- given to patients aged < 65 with severe, progressive disease

3

What are some interventions that may help to relieve symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis?

Pulmonary rehabilitation and oxygen therapy

4

What is the most common type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the UK?

Bird fancier's lung

5

What is the relationship between smoking and hypersensitivity pneumonitis?

Smoking reduces the risk of developing hypersensitivity pneumonitis

6

Where in the lungs is pulmonary fibrosis caused by hypersensitivity pneumonitis most commonly found?

The upper lobes

7

What are the three main features of interstitial lung disease?

Progressive breathlessness, restrictive lung function pattern, reduced transfer factor

8

The diagnosis of ILD mainly depends on the use of what investigation?

High resolution CT

9

What are the two most common interstitial lung diseases?

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis

10

Name some potential causes of pulmonary fibrosis?

Idiopathic, connective tissue disease, drugs, radiotherapy, ARDS

11

What blood test should be done to rule out connective tissue disease as a cause of pulmonary fibrosis?

Autoantibody screen

12

What blood test should be done to rule out hypersensitivity pneumonitis as a cause of pulmonary fibrosis?

Avian precipitins

13

What blood test should be done to rule out sarcoidosis as a cause of pulmonary fibrosis?

Serum ACE

14

What will a high resolution CT of pulmonary fibrosis show?

A ground-glass appearance and honeycombing

15

What further investigation can be used in those with suspected pulmonary fibrosis to exclude other diagnoses?

Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage

16

What are the three main areas of management for pulmonary fibrosis?

Treat any underlying cause, advise smoking cessation, prevent progression with medical treatment

17

Give some examples of drugs which can potentially cause pulmonary fibrosis?

Chemotherapy agents, DMARDs and amiodarone

18

Name some risk factors for the development of pulmonary fibrosis?

Male, increased age, smoking, occupational exposure to fumes and dusts

19

What is the median age for presentation with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis vs. pulmonary fibrosis associated with connective tissue disease?

70 years for idiopathic, 50-60 years for CTD

20

What happens to the total lung volume in pulmonary fibrosis?

Decreased

21

What happens to the FVC in pulmonary fibrosis?

Decreased

22

What happens to FEV1 in pulmonary fibrosis?

Decreased

23

What happens to the FEV1: FVC ratio in pulmonary fibrosis?

Normal (> 75%)

24

In sarcoidosis, affected tissues are infiltrated with what?

Non-caseating granulomas

25

Describe the typical demographic of an individual affected by sarcoidosis?

Female, 20-40 years, Afro-Caribbean ethnicity

26

What type of hypersensitivity reaction is sarcoidosis?

Type IV

27

Describe the four main features of acute sarcoidosis?

Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, fever, arthralgia, erythema nodosum

28

What respiratory symptoms can be seen in sarcoidosis?

Dry cough and dyspnoea

29

Eventually, progressive sarcoidosis leads to what respiratory change?

Pulmonary fibrosis

30

Which electrolyte abnormality is often associated with sarcoidosis?

Hypercalcaemia