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Flashcards in Lung Pathology Deck (22)
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1

what are the changes in lobar pneumonia

consolidation of the affected part and filling of alveolar spaces. the whole lobe is affected at the same time. blood vessels surrounding capillaries are dilated due to inflammatory response, leading to release of neutrophils, along with fibrin and fluid, into the alveolar spaces- this is a sign of an acute inflammatory response

2

where does mesothelioma occur in the lung?

pleural

3

what are pathology in the lower airways

pneumonia, abscess, emphysema, asbestosis, adenocarcinoma

4

exudate

fluid containing proteins i.e. fibrin. it is the technical name for puss

5

types of

lobar and bronchopneumonia

6

what is the most common pathogen causing peunomia

streptococcus pneumonia

7

what is the most common pathogen causing peunomia

streptococcus pneumonia

8

what are the stages of lobar pneumonia

congestion: lung is red, fluid in alveoli

red hepatisation: texture of fresh liver, RBC and fibrin fill alveoli

grey hepatisation: lung cooked liver, macrophages and lymphocytes in alveoli

resolution: lung to normal, purulent exudate removed

9

what is bronchopneumonia

whole lobe is not consolidated, rather there are patches of infection and puss

10

what is dyspnoea

impairment of gas exchange, which leads to difficulty breathing

11

what does suppurative exudate lead to

cough and mucopurulent sputum

12

what is an abscess

severe infection due to localised puss, causing destruction of underlying tissue. wound healing around the outside to seal off abcess to stop spreading to surrounding tissue

13

what is haemorrhage

bleeding in tissue

14

atypical pneumonia

interstitial tissue that surround the alveoli, impairing gas exchange and reducing lung capacity. leads to dry and unproductive cough (no puss)

15

what is pulmonary embolism

lodging of emboli in the lung. most commonly from venous thrombosis from lower extremities (i.e. DVT). often they are small and there are multiple emboli

16

what is an embolus

foreign material in circulation eg. thrombus, fat globule, air bubble, gas, tumour cells, foreign material

17

small vs large pulmonary embolism

60-80% are small and clinicaly silent. may cause infarction or haemorrhage of lung tissue. large (saddle) emboli blocks pulmonary artery at the bifurcation (starts to fold up) complete block of blood flow to emboli leading to acute sudden tissue death

18

small vs large pulmonary embolism

60-80% are small and clinicaly silent. may cause infarction or haemorrhage of lung tissue. large (saddle) emboli blocks pulmonary artery at the bifurcation (starts to fold up) complete block of blood flow to emboli leading to acute sudden tissue death

19

obstructive

can occur at any point of the airway, increases resistance to airflow due to partial/complete obstruction. mucous enhances obstruction I.e in asthma. others: emphysema

20

restrictive

reduce expansion of lung, elastin taken over with fibrosis. emphysema

21

resources

robin's textbook
Medscape (website)

22

what is fibrosis

collagen deposition