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Flashcards in Lungs Deck (58):
1

where are the lungs located?

They are located in the chest, either side of the mediastinum, within the thoracic cavity

2

what are the lungs involved in?

the major organs of respiration

3

what are the functions of the lungs?

to oxygenate blood

4

how do the lungs oxygenate blood?

They achieve this by bringing inspired air into close contact with oxygen-poor blood in the pulmonary capillaries

5

what is each lung surrounded by?

by a pleural cavity

6

what is a pleural cavity?

formed by the visceral and parietal pleura

7

what are the lungs suspended from the mediastinum by?

the lung root

8

what are the lung roots?

a collection of structures entering and leaving the lungs

9

where do the medial surfaces of both lungs lie?

in close proximity to several mediastinal structures

10

what does the left lung lie in close proximity to?

heart
arch of aorta
thoracic aorta
oesophagus

11

what does the right lung lie in close proximity to?

oesophagus
heart
inferior vena cava
superior vena cava
azygous vein

12

roughly what shape are the lungs and what are its borders?

The lungs are roughly cone shaped, with an apex, base, three surfaces and three borders

13

which lung is smaller? why?

The left lung is slightly smaller than the right – this is due to the presence of the heart

14

what does each lung consist of?

apex, base, lobes (2/3), 3 surfaces, 3 borders

15

what is the apex of the lung? where does it project?

The blunt superior end of the lung. It projects upwards, above the level of the 1st rib and into the floor of the neck

16

what is the base of the lung? where does it sit?

The inferior surface of the lung, which sits on the diaphragm

17

what are the lobes of the lungs separated by?

These are separated by fissures within the lung

18

what are the 3 surfaces of the lungs? what are they named?

These correspond to the area of the thorax that they face. They are named costal, mediastinal and diaphragmatic

19

what are the 3 borders of the lungs? how are they named?

The edges of the lungs, named the anterior, inferior and posterior borders

20

do the left and right lungs have identical lobular structure?

NO

21

how many lobes does the right lung have? what are they?

The right lung has three lobes; superior, middle and inferior

22

what are the lobes of the right lung divided from each other by?

by two fissures:
oblique fissure
horizontal fissure

23

where does the oblique fissure run? what does it meet?

Runs from the inferior border of the lung in a superoposterior direction, until it meets the posterior lung border

24

where does the horizontal fissure run? what does it meet?

Runs horizontally from the sternum, at the level of the 4th rib, to meet the oblique fissure

25

what does the left lung contain? (in terms of lobes)

The left lung contains superior and inferior lobes

26

what are the lobes of the left lung separated by?

a similar oblique fissure

27

what do the lung surfaces correspond to?

There are three lung surfaces, each corresponding to an area of the thorax

28

what are the mediastinal surface of the lung faces? what is located on this surface?

the lateral aspect of the middle mediastinum. The lung hilum is located on this surface

29

what is the lung hilum?

where structures enter and leave the lung

30

what is the base of the lung formed by?

The base of the lung is formed by the diaphragmatic surface

31

what does the base of the lung rest on? what shape does it have?

It rests on the dome of the diaphragm, and has a concave shape

32

is the concavity deeper on the left or right lung? why?

This concavity is deeper in the right lung, due to the higher position of the right dome overlying the liver

33

what is the costal surface of the lungs like?

The costal surface is smooth and convex

34

where does the costal surface of the lungs face?

It faces the internal surface of the chest wall

35

what is the costal surface of the lungs related to?

the costal pleura

36

what is the function of the costal pleura?

separates the costal surface from the ribs and innermost intercostal muscles

37

what is the anterior border of the lung formed by?

formed by the convergence of the mediastinal and costal surfaces

38

what is the anterior border of the left lung marked by? what is it created by? known as?

by a deep notch, created by the apex of the heart. It is known as the cardiac notch

39

what is the function of the inferior border of the lungs?

The inferior border separates the base of the lung from the costal and mediastinal surfaces

40

what is the posterior border of the lungs like?

The posterior border is smooth and rounded (in contrast to the anterior and inferior borders, which are sharp)

41

what is the posterior border of the lungs formed by?

It is formed by the costal and mediastinal surfaces meeting posteriorly

42

what is the lung root?

The lung root is a collection of structures that suspends the lung from the mediastinum

43

what does each root contain?

Each root contains a bronchus, pulmonary artery, two pulmonary veins, bronchial vessels, pulmonary plexus of nerves and lymphatic vessels

44

what do all structures enter of leave the lung via?

All these structures enter or leave the lung via the hilum

45

what is the hilum of the lungs?

a wedge shaped area on its mediastinal surface

46

what is the bronchial tree?

a series of passages that supplies air to the alveoli of the lungs

47

where does the bronchial tree begin with? and then?

It begins with the trachea, which divides into a left and right bronchus

48

which bronchus has a higher incidence of foreign body inhalation? why?

The right bronchus has a higher incidence of foreign body inhalation due to its wider shape and more vertical course

49

where does each bronchus enter the lung? passes through?

Each bronchus enters the root of the lung, passing through the hilum

50

what happens to the bronchus when they are inside the lung?

they divide to form lobar bronchi – one supplying each lobe

51

what does each lobar bronchus then do?

Each lobar bronchus then further divides into several tertiary segmental bronchi

52

what does each segmental bronchi provide?

Each segmental bronchi provides air to a bronchopulmonary segment

53

what are bronchopulmonary segments?

these are the functional units of the lungs

54

what does each segmental bronchi give rise to?

The segmental bronchi give rise to many conducting bronchioles

55

what do each bronchioles eventually lead to?

terminal bronchioles

56

what does each terminal bronchiole give off?

Each terminal bronchiole gives off respiratory bronchioles, which feature thin walled outpocketings that extend from their lumens

57

what do respiratory bronchioles feature?

thin walled outpocketings that extend from their lumens

58

what are the thin walled outpocketings that extend from the lumen of respiratory bronchioles?

These are the alveoli – the site of gaseous exchange