Lungs: Fine-tuning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lungs: Fine-tuning Deck (58):
1

What happens to pH of the blood as it passes through systemic capillaries

It decreases

2

How is the efficiency of O2 transmission to cells affected as blood passes through systemic capillaries

The oxygen dissociation curve shifts which causes MORE O2 to be delivered to the cells

3

Is the airway involved in the swallowing reflex and vomiting reflex. If so, how?

They are:
Swallowing reflex - Respiration is INHIBITED to prevent aspiration of food

Vomiting Reflex - Oesophagus relaxes and the glottis is CLOSED

4

What happens to the amount of surfactant as the lungs inflate and why is this the case

The amount of surfactant decreases to prevent OVERINFLATION

5

What happens to the amount of pulmonary surfactant when blood flow is interrupted

The amount of surfactant decreases when pulmonary blood flow is interrupted as this occlusion causes the lungs to collapse

6

How does lung residual volume vary as people age?

The lung residual volume INCREASES
Tidal Volume DECREASES

7

How does the lung volume level at which small airways start to close during expiration change with age

Increases with age

8

At what stage of inspiration is INTRAPLEURAL PRESSURE is lowest?

End of inspiration

9

At what stage of inspiration is INTRAPULMONARY PRESSURE lowest?

mid-inspiration

10

At what stage of inspiration is INTRAOESOPHAGEAL PRESSURE lowest?

end of inspiration

11

An increase in CO2 uptake causes an equal increase in HCO3- and H+. True or False?

False

H+ is largely buffered by haemoglobin so it doesn't enter the blood while HCO3- is

12

What has the highest conc in arterial blood, CO2 or O2

CO2

13

What is usually bigger, the rate of perfusion or the rate ventilation

Rate of perfusion

14

What receptors bring about bronchoconstriction

M3

15

Describe the hering-breuer inflation reflex

- Stretch receptors found throughout the bronchi and bronchioles send impulses down the vagi to the DRG when stretched

- Stops APs being transmitted to inspiratory muscles, causing them to RELAX

16

Describe the flow-volume curve

Flow into the lungs increases as volume increases initially until we reach a peak called the peak expiratory flow. The flow rate begins to decrease as we reach the end of inspiration

We then reach FVC

Flow reaches a lower peak during inspiration (the peak inspiratory flow)

17

What does the volume-time curve of a spirometer show

FEV1 + volume of air breathed out during maximal exhalation

18

What kind of receptor is M3

G-coupled

19

What do M3 receptors cause in the bronchioles

Increased intracellular Ca2+ - BRONCHOCONSTRICTION

20

What do M3 receptors cause in the endothelium

Increased release of NO - VASODILATION

21

What binds to beta-2 receptors

adrenaline

22

When is beta-2 receptor binding adrenaline released

When noradrenaline binds to the adrenal glands - BRONCHODILATION

23

When is compliance of lung greatest (spirometer wise)

Within the normal range of the tidal volume

24

What happens to the rate of ventilation at high altitudes

Increases

25

What happens to the blood pH at high altitudes

Increased ventilation causes respiratory alkalosis (increased pH)

26

What is the difference between the right and left main bronchus

Right is wider, shorter and more vertical than the left

27

Is the right or left bronchus more prone to aspiration

Right as it's more vertical

28

At what level do the trachea divide into the left and right main bronchus

T5 (Carina)

29

How many branches of the left bronchi are there

2

30

How many branches of the right bronchi are there

3

31

What does the main bronchi divide into

Lobar bronchi

32

What does the lobar bronchi divide into

Segmental bronchi

33

What does the segmental bronchi divide into

Terminal bronchi

34

What does the terminal bronchioles divide into

respiratory bronchioles

35

How many segmental bronchioles are there in the right and left lung

Right - 10
Left - 8

36

At what vertebral level does the trachea begin at

C6

37

What innervates the vocal folds

Vagus nerve

38

Where are the vocal folds located

Larynx just under the trachea

39

What structure do the vocal folds belong to

Rima Glottidis

40

What is the rima glottidis

The opening between the true vocal cords and arytenoid cartilage of the larynx

41

What muscles cause the closure of the rims glottides

Lateral cricoarytenoid and arytenoid muscles

42

What is the rima glottides opened by

Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle

43

How do the vocal folds produce noise

They are brought close enough together that air pressure begins to build up below the larynx

Eventually the sub glottal pressure pushes the folds apart producing sound

44

What cartilage is the corniculate made of

Elastic cartilage

45

What cartilage do the corniculate articulate with

Arytenoid

46

What is the role of the corniculate

Prolong cartilage posteriorly and medially

47

Where can we find the corniculate cartilage

In the aryepiglottic fold

48

What structure is attached to the arytenoid

Vocal cords

49

Role of the arytenoid

Allow vocal cords to be tensed and relaxed

50

What cartilage is the cuneiform made of

Elastic

51

Where are the cuneiform cartilage found

Aryepiglottic fold

52

What is the laryngeal inlet

An opening that connects the pharynx to the larynx

53

What forms the border of the laryngeal inlet

Anteriorly by the epiglottis

Posteriorly by arytenoid and corniculate

Inferiorly by the aryepiglottic fold

54

Define 'functional residual capacity'

The volume of gas PRESENT in the lungs when respiratory muscles are completely relaxed

55

How does standing upright affect the distribution of air in the lungs

Alveoli at the apex recieve more air than those at the base due to gravity

56

How does the size of the alveoli in the lungs vary

Those further towards the apex are larger than those closer to the base - due to gravity

57

At what level is FiO2 supplied to patients and why can't it be higher than this

0.5, can't be higher because oxygen toxicity can occur.

58

What muscle fixes the 12th rib during inspiration

Quadratus Lumborum