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Flashcards in SUGER: Anatomy Deck (124):
1

What is the aperture in the transversalis fascia called?

Deep Inguinal

2

Where is the superficial ring located

In the external oblique aponeurosis

3

What happens to the spermatic cord as it passes through the abdominal walls

It recieves a covering from three layers of the abdominal wall

4

What does the spermatic cord form in females

Round Ligament

5

What nerve is found in the inguinal canal

Ilio-Inguinal nerve

6

What structure of the pelvis does the spermatic cord move medial and anterior to

Pubic Tubercle

7

What five main structures are found in the testes

Testicular (gonadal) arteries
Vas Deferens
Pampiniform plexus of veins
Nerves
Lymphatics of the testes

8

Describe the venal route from the pampiniform plexus of veins in the testes

They join together to form the testicular vein and then drain into:

Inferior Vena Cava on the right
Left Renal Vein on the left and then onto the inferior vena cava

9

Role of the vas deferens

Carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct

10

Role of the epididymis

Connects testicles to vas deferens and stores sperm

11

What are the three coverings of the testes from in to out

Inner: Tunica vaginalis
Middle: Tunica Albuginea
Outer: Tunica Vasculosa

12

What separates the two testicles

The testicular septum

13

Are dartos muscles voluntary or involuntary

Involuntary smooth muscle

14

Where are dartos muscles located

JUST under the superficial skin layer

15

Where is the cremaster muscle derived from

The internal oblique muscle

16

Where do the Internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscle meet

Their aponeurosis join at the conjoint tendon

17

What defines a direct hernia

A hernia medial to the inferior epigastric artery

18

What defines an indirect hernia

A hernia lateral to the inferior epigastric artery

19

Where does the testicular artery branch off from

Aorta at L2

20

Where does the cremasteric artery branch from

Inferior epigastric artery

21

Function of the ilio-inguinal nerve

Supplies skin sensation to the anterior 1/3 of the external genitalia

22

Function of the genitofemoral nerve

Supplies the cremaster muscle

23

Function of sympathetic nerves

Supplies vas and testicular pain

24

What two structures pass through the inguinal canal of females

Round ligament
Ilioinguinal nerve

25

What is the corpora cavernosum and corpora spongiosum supplied by (arterial supply)

Cavernosum:
Deep arteries of the penis

Spongiosum:
Dorsal artery of penis

Both are branches of the internal PEUDENDAL artery

26

What is the venous drainage of the penis

Internal peudendal veins

27

Where is the urethra located

Corpus spongiosum

28

Are kidneys retro or intraperitoneal

Retroperitoneal

29

Where do the kidneys extend

From T12 to L3

30

Where are the adrenal glands located

Above the kidneys

31

What is contained within the renal fascia

Adrenal Glands
Kidneys

32

What is the advantage of the renal capsule being fibrous

Prevents the spread of cancer

33

Role of the renal hilum

Acts as a gateway to the kidney

34

What lies anterior to the right kidney

Liver, duodenum and coils of the intestines

35

What lies anterior to the left kidney

Stomach, spleen, pancreas and coils of the intestines

36

What shape are the adrenal glands

Right: Tetrahedral shaped

Left: Crescent-shaped

37

Where does the left adrenal gland lie behind

Stomach and pancreas

38

Where does the right adrenal gland lie behind

Liver and inferior vena cava

39

How many arteries and veins supply each gland

Three arteries
One vein

40

What arcuate ligament is unpaired

The median arcuate ligament

41

What branch of the genitofemoral nerve supplies the cremaster muscle

The genital branch

42

What does the femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve supply

Skin sensation to upper anterior thighs

43

Which arcuate ligament arcs over the quadrates lumborum

Lateral Arcuate Ligament

44

Which arcuate ligament arcs over the posts major muscles

Medial arcuate ligament

45

Define a polar artery

Some people have two renal arteries to one kidney, one large and one smaller, inferior to the larger - polar artery

46

Where can the pelvis of the kidney be located

L2-L3

47

What does the lateral cutaneous nerve supply

skin sensation over the lateral thigh

48

What part of the lumbar plexus does the iliohypogastric nerve branch off at

T12 and L1

49

What part of the lumbar plexus does the ilioinguinal nerve branch off at

T12 and L1

50

What part of the lumbar plexus does the genitofemoral nerve branch off at

L1 and L2

51

What part of the lumbar plexus does the lateral cutaneous nerve branch off at

L2 and L3

52

What part of the lumbar plexus does the femoral nerve branch off at

L2,L3,L4

53

What part of the lumbar plexus does the obturator branch off at

L2,3,4

54

What hole does the obturator pass through at the hip bone

Obturator foramen

55

What are the two pouches found in females

Recto-uterine pouch (pouch of douglas)
Uterovesical pouch

56

What is the pouch found in males called

Recto-vesical pouch

57

What is the mucous in the bladder arranged as

Rugae

58

What artery do the ureters pass over

Left and right common iliac arteries

59

What passes over the ureter in males

Vas Deferens

60

What passes over the ureter in females

Uterine Artery

61

Why is the uterus known as the secondary sex organ

Because these are parts that mature during puberty in the influence of sex hormones

62

What are the sex hormones in females and males

Ovaries
Testes

63

What is the role of the uterus

Transport and maintenance of gametes

64

Where does implantation of the blastocyst take place

Body

65

What is the role of the cervic

Links the uterus to the vagina

66

What is odd about the junction between the body and cervix

It can either be bent forwards (ante-flexed) or slightly backwards (retro-flexed)

67

What are the two communications of the cervical canal

Internal Os - Communicates with uterine cavity

External Os - Communicates with vagina

68

What two structures stabilise the position of the cervix

Levator ani muscles
Cervical Ligaments

69

Where are cervical ligaments derived from

Pelvic Fascia

70

Where are the vaginal fornices found

Lower part of the cervix

71

What can affect the position of the uterus

Bladder

72

What is the broad ligament

Double layer of peritoneum

73

Role of the broad ligament

Attaches sides of uterus to pelvis

74

Role of the round ligament

Maintains anteverted position of the uterus

75

Role of the ovarian Ligament

Joins ovaries to the uterus

76

Role of the cardinal ligament

Contains uterine artery and vein

77

Role of uterosacral ligament

Supports the uterus

78

Describe the branching of the iliac artery into the uterine and vaginal artery

Aorta -> inferior mesenteric artery -> Common iliac -> Internal iliac -> Uterine artery and vaginal artery

79

What is the sympathetic innervation of the uterus

Inferior hypogastric plexus running along the internal iliac artery

The anterior and medial part of this plexus innervated the uterus (uterovaginal plexus)

80

Parasympathetic innervation of the uterus

S2-S4 pelvic splanchnic nerve

81

What is the cervix innervated by

Uterovaginal plexus

82

What ligament do the uterine tubes run along

Broad Ligament

83

Role of the fimbrae

Catch ovary from surface of the ovary

84

What part of the uterine tube does fertilisation take place

Ampulla

85

What is the uterine tube supplied by

Uterine AND Ovarian artery as they anastomose together

86

What is the epithelium of the ovary surface

Simple cuboidal epithelium

87

How are the ovaries attached to the broad ligament

Mesovarium

88

What does the pelvic girdle consist of

Sacrum
Coccyx
Hip Bones

89

What is the name of the junction between the hipbone and the sacrum

Sacroiliac joint

90

How many sacroiliac joints do we have

2

91

What is the junction between the coccyx and the sacrum called

Sacrococcygeal joint

92

Three functions of the pelvis

1. Transfer weight from the upper axial skeleton to the lower appendicular components of the skeleton
2. Provides attachment for a number of muscles + ligaments used in locomotion
3. Protects abdominopelvic + pelvic viscera

93

What does the pelvic inlet divide the pelvis into

An outer greater (false) pelvis and inner lesser (true) pelvis

94

Male vs Female pelvis

Male has a curved inward coccyx vs female has a straight coccyx

Males have an acute angle of the pubic symphysis vs Females have an obtuse pubic symphysis

95

What spinal cord roots does the sacral plexus recieve nerve from

L4-S4

96

How do spinal nerves leave the spinal cord

Via the intervertebral foramina

97

What nerves derive from the sacral plexus

S-ome: S-uperior gluteal nerve
I-rish: I-nferior gluteal nerve
S-ailors: S-ciatic
P-ester: P-osterior cutaneous nerve
P-olly: P-eudendal nerve

98

How do all nerves leave the pelvis

Via the greater sciatic foramen

99

How do all nerves enter the pelvis

Via the lesser sciatic foramen

100

Where does the inferior gluteal nerve root from

L5,S1,S2

101

Where does the Sciatic nerve root from

L4,5,S1,S2,S3

102

Where does the Posterior cutaneous nerve root from

S1,S2,S3

103

Where does the peudendal nerve root from

S2,S3,S4

104

What are the motor functions of the peudendal nerve

- Supplies external anal sphincter
- Supplies the external urethral sphincter
- Levator Ani
- Skeletal muscles of the perineum

105

What are the sensory functions of the peudendal nerve

- Innervates the penis
- Innervates the clitoris
- Skin of the perineum

106

In what part of the urethra is the bulbourethral glands located

Membranous urethra

107

What is the significance of the bulbourethral glands

Provide the last volume of fluid to the semen

Is the reason for 'pre-ejaculate'

108

How can pre-ejaculate cause a pregnancy

Because sperm from a previous ejaculation still in the ducts can be moved through and into the vagina if it is still alive

109

What does the bulbourethral gland secrete into the urethra

A mucous secretion

110

What are the three functions of the mucous secretions of the bulbourethral glands

1. Lubrication for the penis tip and urethra
2. Expel any residue of urine providing a clear pathway for ejaculation
3. Helps to neutralise residual acidity

111

What are the bulbourethral glands innervated by

Hypogastric plexus

112

What are the three branches that supply the penis

Dorsal arteries (supply the superificial part of the penis)
Deep arteries
Bulbourethral arteries

All branch from the internal peudendal artery

113

What does the internal peudendal artery branch off from

Internal iliac artery

114

What nerve supplies the male penis and female clitoris

Peudendal nerve

115

What is the perineum supplied by

Internal peudendal artery

116

Define the borders of the perineum

Anterior - Pubic symphysis
Posterior - Tip of the coccyx
Lateral - Medial border of thigh

117

What does the urogenital triangle consist of

Transverse perineal muscles
Corpus cavernosum and spongiosum
Urethra

118

What is the urogenital triangle bounded by

Pubic Symphysis
Ischiopubic Rami
Line between the two ischial tuberosity

119

At what vertebral level does the common iliac artery bifurcate into the external and internal iliac artery

L4

120

What muscles are found in the perineal body

Deep transverse perineal muscles
Ischiocavernous
Bulbospongiosus

121

What binds the perineal body muscles together

Perineal body

122

Where are bartholin glands found in the perineal body

Superficial perineal pouch

123

What does the anal triangle consist of

1. Anal sphincter
2. Anal aperture
3. Ischioanal fossa

124

Role of the ischioanal fossa

(allows for expanding of the anus)