Flashcards in Lymphedema Deck (112)
What are the 2 main functions of the lymphatic system?
- Regulate fluid balance
- Assist with infection control
How many liters of fluids are removed from the interstitial space per day?
Of the 18 liters removed, __-__% via the veins and __-__% via the superficial and deep lymphatic vessels. How many liters via the lympathics?
What occurs when the lymphatics cannot remove the remaining interstitial fluid?
__-__% of women with breast cancer will develop lymphedema
__% of women with ovarian cancer will develop lymphedema
__% of patients with endometrial cancer will develop lymphedema
Up to __% of men with prostate cancer will develop lymphedema
What are the chief complaints of lymphedema?
- limb heaviness
- skin tightness
- poor-fitting clothes
- altered cosmesis
- decreased ADLs
- reduced ROM
The lymphatic system is composed of 2 interconnecting drainage systems, what are they?
superficial and deep lymphatics
Describe the function and arrangement of the superficial lymphatics
Drains the skin and subcutaneous tissue
Roughly parallels the veins
Describe the function of the deep lymphatics
drains everything else (deep tissues and organs)
What connects the deep and superficial lymphatic systems?
What is lymph made of?
water, protein, dead/dying cells/cellular components, fatty acids, foreign material and debris
Describe the path lymph takes as it exits the interstitial spaces to
Lymph capillaries --> Lymph precollectors --> Lymph collectors --> Lymph nodes --> Lymph trunks
What is the functional unit of a lymph vessel that lies between two semilunar (half moon-shaped) valves?
How many lymphangions are there in a typical arm collector? In a leg collector?
The total number of lymph nodes ranges from ___-___ with the majority located where?
Describe the path lymph takes from the LEs and the genitals
Passes through the inguinal nodes into the left and right lumbar trunks before emptying into the centrally located thoracic duct, which terminates into the left venous angle (the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein)
Describe the path lymph takes from the LEFT upper extremity
Filters through the axillary lymph nodes before emptying into the subclavian vein
Describe the path lymph takes from the RIGHT upper extremity
Empties into the right subclavian vein aka the right venous angle
Lymphatic territories are areas of skin made up of several adjacent lymph collectors that drain into the same regional lymph nodes. These territories are separated by natural boundaries called what?
What pressures govern fluid movement between capillaries, interstitium, and lymphatic system?
hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
What are the 5 ways in which lymph moves centrally in a healthy lymphatic system?
- skeletal muscle contractions
- respiratory pump
- pulsations of the aorta
What is Lymphangiomotoricity?
the contraction of the smooth muscle within the lymphagnions
Lymphangiomotoricity is the key to decreasing edema when?
overnight while the patients are recumbent
What are the 2 types/causes of lymphedema?
primary and secondary
Describe primary lymphedema
Congenital malformation or impairment of lymphatics
Primary lymphedema accounts for only __% of all cases