Venous Insufficiency Ulcers Flashcards Preview

822: Integumentary > Venous Insufficiency Ulcers > Flashcards

Flashcards in Venous Insufficiency Ulcers Deck (80)
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1

What percent of the population is diagnose with chronic venous insufficiency, aka post-phlebetic syndrome?

1-2%

2

Of the 7 million Americans with venous insufficiency, __% will develop a venous insufficiency ulcer

14

3

__-__% of leg ulcers are due to VI

70-90

4

Are men or women more at risk for developing VI ulcers?

women have 3x greater risk

5

The risk of ulceration is __ times greater in individuals over the age of 65

7.5

6

What is the recurrence rate of venous ulcers?

13-81%

7

What is correlated with recurrence?

nonadherence

8

Pressure within the venous system generaly drops to around __ mm Hg and decreases to almost _ mm Hg by the time it reaches the R atrium

15

0

9

Although the names of the 3 layers of the veins is the same as the arteries there are 3 differences, what are they?

- Thinner
- Smaller amounts of smooth muscle
- Less connective tissue support

10

At any one time, the venous system stores approximately __-__% of the total blood volume

70-80

11

What are the 3 types of veins?

- deep
- superficial
- perforating

12

What are 3 examples of deep veins?

- femoral
- popliteal
- tibial

13

The deep veins carry __-__% of blood back to heart

80-90

14

What are 2 examples of superficial veins?

greater and lesser saphenous

15

What are the 2 roles of superficial veins?

- Drain skin and subcutaneous tissues
- Assist with temperature regulation

16

What is the function of the perforating veins?

Connect deep and superficial veins

17

The proximal flow of venous blood relies on what 3 things?

- Respiratory pump
- Calf muscle pump
- Valves

18

It is generally agreed that sustained _____ _______ is required for the development of venous insufficiency ulcerations

venous hypertension

19

What are the 2 most common causes of venous HTN?

- Vein dysfunction
- Calf muscle pump failure

20

What are the 2 main theories as to the etiology of venous insufficiency ulcers?

- fibrin cuff theory
- WBC trapping theory

21

According to the fibrin cuff theory vessel HTN and distention cause what?

an increase in vascular permeability

22

Describe the fibrin cuff theory

Fluid and proteins are allowed to move from within these vessels into the interstitium, the protein fibrinogen is converted to fibrin. Fibrin adheres to capillary walls, forming a "cuff", This cuff is thought to pose a barrier to the exchange of oxygen and nutrients, causing local hypoxia and malnutrition and ultimately cell death and ulceration.

23

What is hemosiderin staining caused by?

Leakage of red blood cells into the tissue

24

According to the WBC trapping theory vessel HTN and distention cause what?

congestion

25

Describe the WBC trapping theory

WBCs trap and plug capillaries leading to tissue ischemia. The WBCs move into the interstitium and release proteolytic enzymes and inflammatory mediators causing tissue damage.

26

What are the 6 risk factors contributing to VI ulcers?

- Vein Dysfunction
- Calf Muscle Pump Failure
- Trauma
- Previous VI Ulcer
- Advanced Age
- Diabetes Mellitus

27

What is the main cause for venous HTN?

valve damage

28

What are 5 means of valvular damage?

- Degeneration
- Scarring
- Inflammation
- Clot sequelae
- Varicosity

29

Describe why retrograde flow exacerbates venous HTN

The valves may close completely but fail to prevent retrograde flow due to venous distention. Distended veins have an increased vessel diameter allowing some blood to flow backward through the closed, but not overlapping, valve leaflets

30

What are varicosities?

Varicose veins

Dilated veins characterized by an increase in length and tortuosity