Skin Anatomy Flashcards Preview

822: Integumentary > Skin Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Anatomy Deck (53):
1

The skin ranges in thickness from __-__ mm

0.5 to 6.0

2

Where is the thinnest skin located? Where is the thickest skin located?

Eyelids and eardrums

Palms of the hands and soles of the feet

3

The skin receives about __ of resting cardiac output

one third

4

What is considered an open wound?

a break in skin integrity (can be as minor as epidermal interruption)

5

What are the 3 layers of skin?

- epidermis
- dermis
- hypodermis (subcutaneous connective tissue)

6

What is the basement membrane?

A thin acellular membrane that anchors the dermis to the epidermis and acts as a scaffolding for the epidermis and a selective filter for substances moving between the 2 layers

7

Describe what happens to the skin as one ages or is exposed to too much sun?

The basement membrane begins to thin and there is disorganization and loss of collagen fibers

8

The epidermis ranges in thickness from __-__ mm

0.06 to 0.6 mm

9

Is the epidermis vascular or avascular?

avascular

10

What are the 5 layers of the epidermis from most superficial to deepest?

- Stratum Corneum
- Stratum Lucidum
- Stratum Granulosum
- Stratum Spinosum
- Stratum Germinativum

11

What are the 4 types of epidermal cell types?

- Keratinocytes
- Melanocytes
- Merkel cells
- Langerhans cells

12

What 2 epidermal cell types serve as protectors?

keratinocytes and Langerhans cells

13

What epidermal cell type gives the skin its pigment?

melanocytes

14

What is the function of the Merkel cells?

mechanoreceptors

15

Describe the structure of the stratum germinativum and what its function is

It is a single row of keratinocytes that continuously divides to produce the protective protein keratin

16

Describe the structure of the stratum spinosum

it consists of several layers of more mature keratinocytes and appears "spiny" under microscope

17

Describe the structure of the stratum granulosum

It contains 3-5 flattened cell rows with increasing concentrations of keratin

18

Describe the structure of the stratum lucidum

It contains a few layers or flattened, dead keratinocytes which appear clear under microscope

19

Describe the structure of the stratum corneum

It consists entirely of dead keratinocytes

20

Which layer of the epidermis is the thickest?

Stratum Corneum

Can be as thick as 20-30 cells thick and accounts for up to 3/4 of the epidermis

21

How long does it take cells to travel from the stratum germinativum to the stratum corneum?

14-21 days

22

Occasionally there is a localized buildup of cells of the stratum corneum due to pressure or friction, what is this known as?

a callus

23

Describe how Langerhans cells help protect the skin

They fight infection by attacking and engulfing foreign material

24

The epidermis has 3 appendages located within the dermis, what are they?

- hair
- glands (sebaceous and sudoriferous)
- nails

25

Hair follicles are present everywhere except what 2 places?

palms and soles

26

What is hair composed of and what is its function?

It is composed of soft keratin and helps to regulate body temperature by trapping air between the hair and the skin's surface

27

Each hair follicle contains what type of gland?

sebaceous gland that secretes sebum

28

What is sebum?

an oily substance tat lubricates the skin and hair

29

What do sudoriferous glands secrete?

sweat

30

Sudoriferous glands are present everywhere except where?

the lips and ears

31

Nails arise from cells within the stratum _______.

germinativum

32

What are the 7 functions of the epidermis?

- provides a physical and chemical barrier
- regulates fluid
- provides light touch sensation
- assists with thermoregulation
- assists with excretion
- critical to endogenous vitamin D production
- contributes to cosmesis

33

The dermis is typically _-_ mm thick

2-4 mm

34

Is the dermis vascular or avascular?

highly vascular

35

What are the 2 layers of the dermis?

- papillary dermis
- reticular dermis

36

Describe the structure of the papillary dermis

It consists loosely woven fibers embedded in a gelatinous matrix called ground substance

37

When and where do blisters tend to form?

Between the papillary dermis and the basement membrane if there is friction between the epidermis and dermis

38

Describe the structure of the reticular dermis

it consists of dense, irregularly arranged connective tissue

39

What are the 3 dermal cell types?

- fibroblasts
- macrophages
- mast cells

40

The fibroblasts are the main cell found within the dermis, what do they produce and based on this what is their function?

Collagen and Elastin

Gives the dermis its characteristic strength and flexibility

41

What is the function of the mast cells within the dermis?

They are specialized secretory cells that produce chemical mediators of inflammation

42

What are the 5 functions of the dermis?

- supports and nourishes the epidermis
- houses epidermal appendages
- assists with infection control
- assists with thermoregulation
- provides sensation

43

What does the hypodermis consists of?

adipose tissue and fascia

44

What are the 4 functions of adipose tissue?

- provides energy
- cushioning
- insulation
- stores fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)

45

What is the function of fascia?

It separates and surrounds structures and facilitates movement between adjacent structures including muscle, tendon, and bone

46

Is fascia vascular or avascular?

avascular

47

What are the 3 categories of tissue involvement?

- superficial
- partial thickness
- full thickness

48

What layers of the skin are affected in superficial wounds?

the epidermis only

49

Give 2 examples of a superficial wound

- abrasion
- first-degree burn

50

What layers of the skin are affected in partial thickness wounds?

Epidermis and part of the dermis

51

How do you know the difference between a superficial and partial thickness?

The patient will feel pain and pressure associated with a partial thickness wound

52

Give 2 examples of a partial thickness wound

- blister
- second-degree burn (blister and peeling sunburn)

53

What layers of the skin are affected in full thickness wounds?

Epidermis, dermis, into subcutaneous; possibly to muscle and/or bone

*Always full-thickness if the subcutaneous tissue is involved