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Flashcards in Lymphoreticular disorders Deck (37)
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1

_____________ are considered to be a group of related disorders caused by proliferation of Langerhans cells

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

2

T/F: Langerhans cells are related to monocytes and serve as antigen-presenting cells

true

3

what are the 3 clinical presentations of Langerhans cell Histiocytosis?

1) Acute disseminated histiocytosis

2) Chronic disseminated histiocytosis

3) Eosinophilic granuloma, which may be monostotic or polyostotic

4

what form of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis is seen only in infants?

what are its symptoms?

Acute disseminated histiocytosis

- Skin rash, splenic and hepatic involvement
- Usually a very aggressive, malignant course

5

what form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis is found in older children?

Chronic disseminated histiocytosis

6

what are the symptoms of Chronic disseminated histiocytosis?

Classic triad of:
1) exophthalmos
2) diabetes insipidus
3) bone lesions (well-defined radiolucencies) is actually rather uncommon

7

Eosinophilic granuloma of bone affects what age groups?

Teenagers and adults

8

what are the 2 types clinical forms of Eosinophilic granulomas?

what is the radiographic presentation/appearance?

- May be polyostotic (teenagers) or monostotic (older adults)

- Well-defined, but non-corticated radiolucency

9

what are the Histopathologic Features of Langerhans cell histiocytosis?

Sheets of large, histiocytic-appearing cells (neoplastic Langerhans cells)

Variable numbers of eosinophils (“eosinophilic granuloma”)

10

What are the treatment options for Langerhans cell histiocytosis?

Acute – chemotherapy; poor prognosis

Chronic – radiation and/or chemotherapy; guarded prognosis

Eosinophilic granuloma – curettage or radiation; good prognosis

11

___________ are a group of hematologic malignancies characterized by tumor cells circulating in the blood

Leukemia

12

how is Leukemia classified/categorized?

A) Broadly divided into lymphocytic and myelomonocytic types

B) Further divided into acute and chronic forms

13

what are the symptoms of Leukemia?

A) Patients often present with signs and symptoms related to myelophthisic anemia (normal bone marrow cells replaced by leukemic cells)

B) Fatigue, SOB, pallor (decreased RBC’s)

C) Easy bruising (decreased platelets)

D) Infection (decreased WBC’s)

14

Oral involvement of Leukemia is most frequently seen in the ________________ forms

myelomonocytic

15

what lesion forms in the oral cavity as a result of Leukemia?

“granulocytic sarcoma”

A) Focal mass of leukemic cells may develop at one soft tissue site – “granulocytic sarcoma”

B) Diffuse gingival enlargement

16

how is leukemia diagnosed?

1) This diagnosis is usually based on finding increased numbers of atypical WBC’s in the circulation

2) Type of leukemia is determined by immunohistochemical/cytogenetic studies

3) If gingival enlargement caused by leukemia is biopsied, atypical cells can be characterized

17

Treatment options for Leukemia:

Chemotherapy

Bone marrow or stem cell transplantation

Targeted gene therapy – experimental, but promising

18

_________ are malignancies of Lymphoid cells

Lymphoma

19

how are Lymphomas classified?

Usually divided into Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin forms

1) Hodgkin lymphoma develops in the lymph nodes

2) Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may develop in nodes, soft tissue or bone

20

what age group/groups are at risk for Hodgkins Lymphomas

Bimodal age distribution:
2nd-3rd decades and > 50 yrs old
~9,000 cases in US in 2015

21

what are the clinical features/characteristics of Hodgkins Lymphoma?

Head and neck is common site of initial involvement

One or more rubbery-firm, enlarging, painless lymphadenopathy (cervical, supraclavicular)

22

Hodgkins Lymphoma treatment and prognosis:

(give for both low and high stages)

Based primarily on stage
1) Low stage (localized disease)
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, ~100% 5 yr survival

2) High Stage (widespread disease)
Chemotherapy; 50% 5 yr survival

23

T/F: Non-Hodgkins lymphoma Generally effects an older age group of patients than with Hodgkin lymphoma

True

24

Characteristics of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma:

(how many new cases per year, where they occur)

71,000 cases in US in 2015
Most present in the lymph nodes, but 30-40% are extra nodal

25

what are the oral presentations of Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma? What are the radiographic findings?

1) Oral involvement of soft tissue is usually seen as a diffuse mass of the soft palate or the buccal vestibule

2) Mandibular involvement may be associated with “numb chin” sign

3) “Moth-eaten” or ill-defined radiolucency seen radiographically

26

what is the treatment for Lymphomas?

Localized disease – radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy

More generalized disease – multi-agent chemotherapy

27

Prognosis For Hodgkins, and Non-Hodgkins lymphomas:

Hodgkin lymphoma – good, with many series reporting a 95% 10-year survival rate, especially with low-stage disease

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma- much more variable prognosis, depends on the type, grade and stage of disease

28

what is the definition of "Plasmacytoma/Multiple Myeloma"?

Neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells, frequently arising in bone marrow

29

what are the 3 forms of Plasmacytomas?

1) Solitary plasmacytoma
2) Extramedullary plasmacytoma
3) Multiple myeloma

30

Plasmacytomas comprises nearly ____% of malignancies involving bone, excluding metastases

how many cases of Plasmacytomas are diagnosed each year?

50%

Over 26,000 cases annually in the US
Mean age of 65 years; rare