M28. Smoking and Cardiovascular diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in M28. Smoking and Cardiovascular diseases Deck (8)
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1

How many different chemicals do cigarettes contain?

4000

2

Give 3 examples of harmful chemicals found in cigarettes

nicotine
carbon monoxide
tar (a mixture of chemicals including carcinogens)

3

What is tar?

a mixture of chemicals which settles on the lining of the airways and alveoli

4

What negative effect does tar have in the human body

As when it settles on the airways and alveoli which increases the diffusion distance for oxygen entering the blood and for carbon dioxide leaving the blood
- some of thechemicals in tar may cause an allergic reaction, which can cause the smooth muscles in the walls to contract so the lumen gets smaller and restricts the flow of air
- tar paralyses or destroys the cilia on the surface of the airway so they cant move the layer of mucus away.
-It stimulates the goblet cells to produce more mucus than usual, so it builds up. which then bacteria can become trapped and multiply in the airways, so they are more likely to get infected.

5

What are the long term effects of smoking?

- 'smokers cough' , which is an attempt to shift the bacteria-laden mucus that collects in the lungs.
-smokers cough causes the delicate lining and the alveoli to become damaged, and becomes replaced with scarring so becomes thicker and less flexible.
-This reduces the lumen size and so the flow of air is permantely restricted
-Frequent infections from bacteria attracts white blood cells which have to get from the blood to the airways, and they have to damage it to do so..

6

What affect does frequent infection have in the airways? (and the methods of dealing with it)

Frequent infections from bacteria attracts white blood cells which have to get from the blood to the airways, so they have to release enzymes which digest part of the lining of the lungs to get through (the enzyme elastase is particularly common).
-This reduces the elasticity of the alvelous wall so as we enhale the alveolus walls dont recoil to push air out, and the bronchioles collapse- trapping air in the alveoli , which can cause them to burst due to the pressure.

7

What does a smokers cough cause?

smokers cough causes the delicate lining and the alveoli to become damaged, and becomes replaced with scarring so becomes thicker and less flexible.
-This reduces the lumen size and so the flow of air is permantely restricted

8

start with LUNG CANCER

page 179