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How many different kinds of medicine are available in the UK ?



Why are knew drugs needed?

-as new diseases are emerging
- there are still many diseases that there are no effective treatments for
- some antibiotic treatments are becoming elss effective, as microorganisms that cause disease are always evolving.


Give 5 ways in which new drugs are discovered

-by accident
- traditional medicine
- anaesthetics
-observations of wildlife
- modern research


Give an example of a drug discovered by accident



What are most types of antibiotics made by? give some examples.

the bacterium streptomyces, eg neomycin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin


Why is streptomyces rarely used anymore though?

as most bacteria are resistant to it


What is Nystatin, and what is it derived from

important antifungal drug
derived from Streptomyces noursei


what percentage of world medicines relies on old traditions



How many different plants are used for medicines in india and china

india- 7000
china- 5000


Give an example of Anaesthetic drugs

the sap of unripe poppies was used in Neolothic times in parts of Southern Europe as an anaesthetic in twelth century
in 19th century morphine and opium were used


What do anaesthetics do?

reduce nervous action in the central nervous system, so if the nerves cant carry impulses, pain cant be felt.


Give 4 examples of animals self medicating

-monkeys, bears and other animals rub citrus oils on their coats as insecticides and antiseptics to prevent insect bites and infection
- chimpanzees swallow leaves folded in a particular way to remove parasites from their digestive tract
- elephants roam for miles to find clay to counteract dietary toxins
- birds line their nests with medicinal leaves to protect their chicks from blood sucking mites


How do scientists research drugs ?

They use traditional medicines and animal behaviour as a starting point, such as researching plants used to isolate the active ingredients.


Where do most antibiotics developed in the last 50 years come from?

the bacterium Streptomyces


How do scientists work out how bacteriums produce antibiotics

by finding out what its genes do. then they can use this information to improve current production methods


How does the HIV virus cause disease?

using the receptor called the CD4 receptor which can be isolated and sequenced. Then once the amino acid sequence is known, molecular modelling can be used to determine the shape of the receptor.
Then to find a drug that could block that receptor without causing major side effects


How can you identify potential medicinal drugs from DNA, known as genomics?

As you can compare DNA of a person with that of a plant or organism, to see if they are