M21. Nutrition Flashcards Preview

Module 2 - biology > M21. Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in M21. Nutrition Deck (57)
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1

What does good nutrition provide?

- better health
- stronger immune system
- ill less often
- learn more effectively
- stronger
-more productive

2

What are the 7 components necessary for a healthy diet?

- carbohydrates
-protein
- fat
-vitamins
-minerals
-water
fibre

3

Why do we need carbohydrates

they are our main source of energy

4

Why do we need protein?

essential for growth and repair, structure etc

5

Why do we need fats?

essential source of energy, important in a cell membrane production, waterproofing, absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, thermal insulation, electrical insulation and padding.

6

Why do we need vitamins?

they play important rules in the chemical processes taking place inside cells. Some are water soluble and some are fat soluble.

7

Why do we need minerals?

inorganic elements occuring in the body that are essential to its normal functions

8

Why do we need water?

its essential to body function, as it is used for transporting substances and is a main component of the body.

9

Why do we need fibre?

although it provides no energy or nutrition, it is essential for healthy functioning of the digestive system.

10

What proportion of our foods should be carbs, fats and protein?

carbs; 57%
protein 13%
fats 30%

11

What is malnutrition caused by? is it just too little?

caused by an unbalanced diet
no, the worlds biggest form of malnutrition is obesity

12

What is obesity caused by?

consuming too much energy, the excess energy is deposited as fat in the adipose tissues.

13

What is obesity?

a condition in which excess fat deposition impairs health, and is usually defined as when a persons body mass index (BMI) is at 30 or above. (20% over recommended for height)

14

What is the measurement for BMI?

mass in kg / height in metres squared

15

Who have a higher risk of health problems due to obesity, apples or pears?

apples

16

Has obesity levels risen or fallen in the last 30 years?

risen, for everyone, including children

17

How many deaths a year are thought to be obesity related?

300,000

18

Which 3 problems are obesity thought to be the most important dietary factor for? what else has obesity been linked to?

cancer
cardiovascular disease
type 2 diabetes
linked to; gall stones, osteoarthritis, high blood pressure (hypertension)

19

What is coronary heart disease a result of?

CHD is a result of deposition of fatty substances in the walls of the coronary arteries, known as atherosclerosis
This narrows the size of the lumen, restricting blood flow to the heart muscle, which may cause oxygen starvation.

20

What can be eaten to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease?

fibre, oily fish and alcohol in moderate consumption

21

What happens if you eat excess salt?

-decrease water potential of blood, so more water is held in the blood, increasing blood pressure.
- which can lead to hypertension (where the diastolic pressure is maintained at a level that is too high, so it damages the inner lining of the arteries

22

What is the result of hyper tension?

it can damage the inner lining of the arteries, which is one of the early stages of atherosclerosis

23

Which fats are thought to be best for your health, and which are worst?

best; polyunsaturated/ monounsaturated / unsaturated ie plant oils.
worst; saturated ie animal fats

24

What does cholesterol have similar properties to?

triglyceride

25

Where is cholesterol mostly found?

meat, eggs and dairy products
it is also made in the liver from saturated fats

26

What percentage of deaths due to coronary heart disease have been linked to high cholesterol?

45-47% of deaths

27

What concentration of cholesterol should be in the blood?

below 5.2 mmol dm3

28

Why is cholesterol essential?
why is it in the blood?

-it is found in cell membranes and in the skin
- it is used to make steroid sex hormones and bile
its in the blood as it needs to be transported to carry out these functions.

29

is cholesterol soluble in water?

no, its a fat.

30

What must cholesterol be transported in the blood as?

lipoproteins (as these are dissolvable)