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Flashcards in Macronutrient Lecture Deck (18):
1

Define estimated average requirement

The estimated average requirement is the intake level for a nutrient at which the needs of 50 percent of the population will be met

2

Define recommended dieary allowance

Average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%0 healthy

3

Define adequate intake level

The recommended average daily intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations

4

Define tolerable upper intake level

Highest average daily nutrient intae level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals

5

Define estimated energy requirement

Average dietary energy intain to maintain energy balance

6

Two starches

(1) amylose - linear (unbranched) chain of glucose molecules bonded together by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds
(2) amylopectin - branched; alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds

7

Essential amino acids
(WTF MLK HIV)

histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methi onine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan valine

8

Conditionally essential amino acid

arginine, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, proline, tyrosine

9

How is excess nitrogen excreted?

Amino acids -> NH3 -> converted to Urea (NH2)2CO
(urea released into the blood and excreted in the urine)

10

Maramus

severe deprivation of food for a long time, impaired brain development, no insulation against cold

11

Kwashiorkor

- sudden and recent deprivation of food
- edema (gives belly full appreance)

12

Describe the structure of the omega fatty acids

18 carbons, methyl end, acid end, omega number represents location of the closest double bond from methyl end

13

What are eicosanoids?

signaling molecules made by oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acids. They exert complex control over many bodily systems; mainly in growth during and after physical activity, inflammation or immunity. Many are classified as hormones. Eicosanoids are derived from either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. In general, the omega-6 are pro-inflammatory; the omega-3 are much less so

14

Top dietary determinant of LDL cholesterol

Saturated fat

15

Metablic effects of trans fatty acid

increase LDL, decrease HDL

16

Metabolic effects of saturated fatty acids

increase LDL, little effect on HDL

17

Metabolic effects on monosaturated fatty acid (ex. omega - 9 )

decrease LDL, maintain or increase HDL

18

Metabolic effects on polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6

decrease LDL, decrease HDL