Flashcards in Made Ridiculously Simple Deck (48):
If the L ventricle cannot pump adequately out to the body, where will the blood back up?
A back up in pressure from an improperly functioning left ventricle increases pulmonary veins, which ultimately leads to..
Pulmonary edema (and causes dyspnea!)
Lung exam of a pt w L heart failure will reveal what
Crackles in the base
(the worse the failure and the more fluid in the lungs, the higher up in the lung field these crackles will be heard)
If a pt has L sided HF, leading to pulmonary HTN and edema...what else can develop?
R sided HF
If we have R sided HF, where does the blood back up? What do you expect to see on exam?
backs up in the body!
*will see an elevated JVP
..all signs of?
R sided heart failure
Muscle fatigue, weakness
Change in mental status
All indicative of..
Poor cardiac output
When standing, gravity causes blood to pool in the feet. When lying, all of the blood can find its way to the heart easier and a failing heart cannot handle this. Blood backs up into the lungs, causing SOB
A pt wakes up in the middle of the night coughing and SOB, classically resolving when getting up
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Blood pressure in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, right before the ventricles contract
Preload comes to the heart from the..
______ is the systemic vascular resistance, or the resistance to flow in the arterial tree in which the heart must work
Drug classes that increase forward flow by increasing cardiac output
-Inotrope (ie digoxin)
Increase the force of ventricular contraction
Inotropes (ie digoxin, dobutamine)
Decrease the rate of contraction to increase filling time (allowing for more blood to accumulate in the ventricles, leading to subsequent increase in cardiac output)
Nitro and diuretics decrease...
ACE inhibitors are arterial dilators, which decrease
Decrease cardiac output, leading to decreased blood flow to kidneys causes release of...
Renin converts angiotensinogen into..
Angiotensinogen I is converted into Angiotensinogen II by..
A reentrant circuit in the atrium that travels at very high speeds. The atrial rate is typically between 200-400 beats per minute
Many reentrant circuits in atria. Rates in the atria can be over 400 beats per minute
Atherosclerosis or clot formation in the coronary vasculature can cause..
Angina and/or MI
What type of angina occurs secondary to intermittent vasospasm. It can occur at anytime and is not related to activity.
Variant, or Prinzmetal's angina
Decreasing the heart's demand for oxygen can be accomplished by:
Calcium channel blockers
DOC for Prinzmetal's angina
Calcium channel blockers
2 pathways in which lipids are processed in the body
Which lipid pathway absorbs fats from the digestive tract into circulation
Which lipid pathway transports fats synthesized in the liver between the liver and the peripheral tissues
LDL, good or bad?
HDL, good or bad?
LDL transports cholesterol to the...
periphery (where it may be incorporated into atherosclerotic lesions)
HDL transports cholesterol...
from the periphery to the liver
Most cases of HTN have no identifiable cause
What can cause failure to adequately excrete sodium and water, increasing intravascular volume
Renal artery stenosis can activate the...
(increases blood volume, can cause HTN)
Renal artery stenosis can be caused by either..
2. fibromuscular dysplasia
Hormonal changes that can cause HTN
aortic coarctation and vasculitis can cause..
Kidney damage (nephropathy)
Consequences of HTN
Hyper coagulable states
Inflammatory conditions (Lupus)
Non infectious causes of endocarditis
Common bacterial causes of endocarditis:
Which valve would you expect an IV drug user to have endocarditis?
(drugs injected into venous system can cause infectious material to travel to the R heart)
Which bacteria is the most common cause of IV drug related endocarditis?
When might surgical replacement of a valve be necessary in endocarditis?
If heart failure develops
fever, joint pain, subcutaneous nodules, chorea and/or other uncontrolled purposeless movements
The long term effects of the inflammation in the heart can include mitral stenosis and/or regurg as well as aortic stenosis and/or regurg
Rheumatic heart dz