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Clin Med-Cardio pt 2 > Made Ridiculously Simple > Flashcards

Flashcards in Made Ridiculously Simple Deck (48):
1

If the L ventricle cannot pump adequately out to the body, where will the blood back up?

Pulmonary vasculature

2

A back up in pressure from an improperly functioning left ventricle increases pulmonary veins, which ultimately leads to..

Pulmonary edema (and causes dyspnea!)

3

Lung exam of a pt w L heart failure will reveal what

Crackles in the base

(the worse the failure and the more fluid in the lungs, the higher up in the lung field these crackles will be heard)

4

If a pt has L sided HF, leading to pulmonary HTN and edema...what else can develop?

R sided HF

5

If we have R sided HF, where does the blood back up? What do you expect to see on exam?

backs up in the body!

*will see an elevated JVP

6

Ascites
Hepatic congestion
Peripheral edema

..all signs of?

R sided heart failure

7

Muscle fatigue, weakness
SOB
Drowsiness
Change in mental status

All indicative of..

Poor cardiac output

8

When standing, gravity causes blood to pool in the feet. When lying, all of the blood can find its way to the heart easier and a failing heart cannot handle this. Blood backs up into the lungs, causing SOB

Orthopnea

9

A pt wakes up in the middle of the night coughing and SOB, classically resolving when getting up

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

10

Blood pressure in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, right before the ventricles contract

Preload

11

Preload comes to the heart from the..

venous system

12

______ is the systemic vascular resistance, or the resistance to flow in the arterial tree in which the heart must work

After load

13

Drug classes that increase forward flow by increasing cardiac output

-Inotrope (ie digoxin)
-Beta blockers

14

Increase the force of ventricular contraction

Inotropes (ie digoxin, dobutamine)

15

Decrease the rate of contraction to increase filling time (allowing for more blood to accumulate in the ventricles, leading to subsequent increase in cardiac output)

Beta blockers

16

Nitro and diuretics decrease...

Preload

17

ACE inhibitors are arterial dilators, which decrease

Afterload

18

Decrease cardiac output, leading to decreased blood flow to kidneys causes release of...

Renin

19

Renin converts angiotensinogen into..

angiotensin I

20

Angiotensinogen I is converted into Angiotensinogen II by..

ACE

21

A reentrant circuit in the atrium that travels at very high speeds. The atrial rate is typically between 200-400 beats per minute

A flutter

22

Many reentrant circuits in atria. Rates in the atria can be over 400 beats per minute

A fib

23

Atherosclerosis or clot formation in the coronary vasculature can cause..

Angina and/or MI

24

What type of angina occurs secondary to intermittent vasospasm. It can occur at anytime and is not related to activity.

Variant, or Prinzmetal's angina

25

Decreasing the heart's demand for oxygen can be accomplished by:

Beta blockers
Calcium channel blockers

26

DOC for Prinzmetal's angina

Calcium channel blockers

27

2 pathways in which lipids are processed in the body

1. exogenous
2. endogenous

28

Which lipid pathway absorbs fats from the digestive tract into circulation

Exogenous pathway

29

Which lipid pathway transports fats synthesized in the liver between the liver and the peripheral tissues

Endogenous pathway

30

LDL, good or bad?

BAD

31

HDL, good or bad?

GOOD

32

LDL transports cholesterol to the...

periphery (where it may be incorporated into atherosclerotic lesions)

33

HDL transports cholesterol...

from the periphery to the liver

34

Most cases of HTN have no identifiable cause

Essential HTN

35

What can cause failure to adequately excrete sodium and water, increasing intravascular volume

Renal disease

36

Renal artery stenosis can activate the...

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis

(increases blood volume, can cause HTN)

37

Renal artery stenosis can be caused by either..

1. atherosclerosis
2. fibromuscular dysplasia

38

Hyperaldosteronism
Increased cortisol
Hyperthyroidism
Increased epinepherine/norepin.

Hormonal changes that can cause HTN

39

aortic coarctation and vasculitis can cause..

hypertension

40

Kidney damage (nephropathy)
Retinopathy
Stroke
Intracranial hemorrhage
Aortic aneurysm
Aortic dissection

Consequences of HTN

41

Hyper coagulable states
Inflammatory conditions (Lupus)

can cause..

Non infectious causes of endocarditis

42

Common bacterial causes of endocarditis:

S. viridans
S. aureus

43

Which valve would you expect an IV drug user to have endocarditis?

Tricuspid

(drugs injected into venous system can cause infectious material to travel to the R heart)

44

Which bacteria is the most common cause of IV drug related endocarditis?

S. aureus

45

When might surgical replacement of a valve be necessary in endocarditis?

If heart failure develops

46

Presents as..
fever, joint pain, subcutaneous nodules, chorea and/or other uncontrolled purposeless movements

Rheumatic fever

47

The long term effects of the inflammation in the heart can include mitral stenosis and/or regurg as well as aortic stenosis and/or regurg

Rheumatic heart dz

48

Most common viral cause of myocarditis

Coxsackie B