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Flashcards in Major Minerals Deck (38):
1

Sodium

= most abundant cation in ECF
easily absorbed in GI tract
AI = 1500 mg/day or 3600 mg/day of salt
UL = 2300 mg/day

2

Sodium functions

resting membrane potential
blood volume
nerve impulse transmission
muscle contraction

3

Sodium excess

HTN: 50% people with HTN = sodium sensitive
edema
**exagerrated in cases of potassium and magnesium deficiency**

4

Sodium deficiency
{hyponatremia}

HA
thirst
confusion
coma
death
caused by excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, reduced intake, diuretic meds

5

Chloride

most abundant anion in ECF
maintains fluid balance
necessary for gastric HCl production
AI = 2300 mg/day
UL = 3600 mg/day

6

Chloride excess

vomiting
deficiency = rare

7

Potassium

main cation in ICF
AI = 4700 mg/day

8

Potassium functions

resting membrane potential
fluid balance maintenance
cell integrity
nerve impulses
muscle contraction

9

Potassium toxicity
{ hyperkalemia }

muscle weakness
peripheral neuropathy
cardiac abnormalities: arrhythmias, cardiac arrest

causes = kidney failure, meds, insufficient aldo secretion

10

Potassium deficiency
{ kypokalemia }

fatigue
muscle weakness/cramps
incr BP
kidney stones
arrhythmias

11

Conditions that incr risk for hypokalemia

potassium-wasting diuretics
alcoholism
severe vomiting/diarrhea
laxative overuse
anorexia/bulimia
magnesium deficiency

12

Potassium food sources

potato
avocado
leafy greens
nuts/seeds
brassicas
banana
squash

13

Magnesium

75% of US pop = deficient
RDA = 420 mg/day (m) or 320 mg/day (f)

14

Magnesium functions

catalyst for ATP production
cell membrane stabilization (ion channel regulation)
synthesis of protein/lipids/nucleic acids
muscle contraction
blood clotting
BP regulation

15

Magnesium excess

supplements only
diarrhea
alkalosis
dehydration
impaired kidney function

16

Magnesium deficiency

neuromuscular excitability
- incr intracellular Na and Ca; decr Mg and K
muscle cramps/twitching
restless leg syndrome
cardiac dysrhythmias
HTN
N/V/D
bone health effects

17

Magnesium in foods

whole grains
leafy greens
nuts/seeds
legumes
fish

18

Calcium

most abundant mineral in the body
2 forms = hydroxyapatite (bone/teeth) and ionized calcium (bodily fluids/physio activity)
AI = 1000 mg/day
UL = 2500 mg/day

19

Calcium absorption
Primary Route

proximal SI; 60% absorbed (400-500 mg)
3 Vit D dependent mechanisms:
1. calcium transporter 1 or TRPV6: saturable, requires ATP
2. calbindin: shuttles Ca across cytosol
3. Ca-ATPase: releases Ca into plasma on basolateral membrane

20

Other routes of Ca absorption

Paracellular diffusion
- when intestinal Ca concentration = high
claudins (vit D dependent transmembrane proteins)
enhanced by FOS, inulin, non-digestible saccharides

Bacterial digestion/fermentation of fiber releases bound Ca
= 4-10% of calcium absorbed in colon QD

21

Calcium absorption

25-30% from food
27-39% from supplements depending on salt used
- calcium citrate minimizes GI discomfort

intakes of

22

Inhibitors of calcium absorption

fiber - phytic and oxalic acids
excessive divalent cations - Zn, Mg

excretion incr by sodium, protein, caffeine

23

Methods of phytate reduction

cooking/heating
soaking/sprouting
fermenting
processing
vit c - 50 mg/meal
good gut health - normal stomach pH reduces phytates

24

Calcium metabolism

transport via albumin/prealbumin (40%) or sulfate/phosphate/citrate (10%) or free/ionized (50%)

most = deposited in bone
intra/extracellular concentrations = tightly regulated (8.5-10.5 mg/dL)

25

Calcium functions

calcification of bones, teeth
blood-clotting activator of thrombokinase
transport of ions across cell membranes (nerves/muscles)
hormone secretion (insulin)

26

Calcium balance

regulated via PTH (raises blood Ca) and calcitonin (lowers blood Ca)

27

Calcium toxicity

rigor

28

Calcium deficiency

acute = tetany
chronic = bone depletion/osteoporosis/stunted growth

causes = vit D deficiency, excess sodium, protein, caffeine

29

Calcium food sources

dairy
leafy greens
brassicas
tofu
fortified grains
legumes
seaweed

30

Phosphorus

2nd most abundant mineral in body
critical for bone formation - strength/rigidity
RDA = 700 mg/day
UL = 4,000 mg/day

31

Phosphorus functions

formation of:
- bones/teeth
- ATP
- coenzymes like NADP
nucleotide/nucleic acid structure
biosynthesis of phospholipids in cell membranes
carb metabolism (G6P and F6P)

32

Phosphorus excess

calcification of non-skeletal tissue, esp kidneys
risk for CVD and fracture

33

Phosphorus deficiency

muscle weakness
bone pain

34

Phosphorus food sources

dairy
liver
beef
chicken
eggs
tofu
legumes
nuts/seeds

35

Sulfur

easily attainable from dietary proteins (met and cys)
needed for hair, skin, nail structure
no recommendations/limits set

36

Sulfur functions

ETC enzyme function/structure
insulin structure/function
detox: taurine, glutathione, cysteine, methionine

37

Sulfur deficiency

joint pain/arthritis
impaired liver function

no known excess

38

Sulfur food sources

eggs
legumes
whole grains
garlic
onions
brassicas, esp brussels and cabbage