Flashcards in Male Reproductive System Deck (57):
The primary sex organs are the organs that actually _____. Sperm, the gametes produced
by the male, are produced by the _____. (The singular form of this word is '_____.')
produce gametes; testes; testis
The testes are formed within the _____, but because sperm can only be produced if the
testes are _____ than the body, they descend shortly before birth into the _____.
abdominopelvic cavity; cooler;
The scrotum is a two-chambered sac at the root of the penis. The distance from the body
and surface area can be altered to increase or decrease the _____.
temperature of the testes
The cremaster muscle _____ to increase warmth, and the dartos muscle _____ to
elevates the testes; wrinkles
the skin of the scrotum
Within the testes, sperm production, or _____, occurs in the _____, which are surrounded
by endocrine interstitial cells which produce the male sex hormones. A mnemonic: to
begin the process, divide AT Outset.
Two types of cells are found in the seminiferous tubules: the _____ cells, which _____,
and the _____ cells, which support and _____ the sperm from the body's immune system.
sperm; Sertoli OR
The cells of the seminiferous tubules are surrounded by endocrine interstitial cells which
_____. These are often given the name, '_____.'
produce the male sex
hormones; Leydig cells
Less than five seminiferous tubules are coiled into each of several hundred separate
_____ which are regions of the testes that are separated from one another by _____.
The _____ of the testes are extensions of the firm outer layer, the _____. They are the
structures that physically divide the testis into several hundred _____.
septa; tunica albuginia; lobules
The tunica vaginalis is the _____ which surrounds _____. As with other serous
membranes, it has two layers.
outer, serous membrane; each
After the sperm are nearly mature, they are transported out of the lobule where they were
formed via the tubulus rectus (a straight connecting tubule), then into a network of tubules
called the rete testis, and finally _____ through the _____.
out of the testis; efferent
The efferent ductules form the _____, which is a comma-shaped organ adjoining each
testis. Sperm _____ here as they travel to the _____ through the long (over 3x a man's
height!) duct of the epididymis, a trip that takes 2 - 3 _____ .
head of the epididymis; mature;
tail of the epididymis; weeks
From the epididymis, the sperm are transported to the _____, a long tube which connects
each testis to the _____ in the prostate gland, which is the region in which they are
activated and begin to swim during the ejaculatory process.
ductus deferens OR vas
deferens; ejaculatory duct
Sperm are stored for up to several months in the _____ and the _____, after which they
tail of the epididymis; ductus
The ductus deferens, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves, enter or leave the
scrotum inside of the _____, a connective tissue tube. This tube travels in front of the
pubis and forms a channel into the abdominopelvic cavity through the _____.
spermatic cord; inguinal canals
The blood entering the scrotum transfers heat to the _____, and so is already a bit below
body temperature when it reaches the testes. This transfer of heat from between liquids
flowing in opposite directions is an example of a(n) _____.
blood that is leaving;
When the male becomes sexually aroused, peristaltic contractions conduct sperm to the
_____, the widest part of the ductus deferens and the final storage site for the sperm prior
The _____ are adjacent to the ampulla of the ductus deferens, behind the bladder. They
produce a bit more than half of the liquid which forms semen.
Sperm are metabolically inactive and immobile and must be transported by the peristaltic
actions of the tubules and tubes through which they travel until _____.
they are mixed with the
secretions of the seminal
Semen is a mixture of three major components: _____ fluid, which contains fructose
(which the sperm use for fuel), buffers, and factors which activate the sperm; _____
secretions, which include an antibiotic; and of course, the _____.
seminal; prostatic; sperm
The _____ is inferior to the bladder, surrounding the _____, and produces a bit less than
half of the liquid which forms semen.
prostate gland; urethra
When the male becomes sexually excited and is approaching orgasm, the _____ secrete
an alkaline, clear mucus into the urethra to neutralize any acidity which might remain from
the urine, preparing the way for the sperm.
bulbourethral glands OR
The seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, and prostate gland are called the _____,
because they don't actually produce gametes and yet are necessary to reproduction.
During ejaculation (which normally follows a period of sexual stimulation), the sympathetic
system causes the muscular ducts and accessory glands to contract, expelling their
contents into the _____ where they mix to form _____.
During ejaculation, the _____ to prevent urine (which would kill sperm) from leaking into
bladder sphincter constricts
During ejaculation, the _____ contracts rhythmically to propel the semen from the urethra
at high velocity. (The farther the semen travels, the more likely the encounter between
sperm and egg.)
During sexual intercourse, the erect penis penetrates far into the female's vagina to
deliver the sperm as close as possible to the location where _____.
an encounter with an egg is
The penis has three regions: the attached _____ which connects it to the body, the _____
or _____, which is the columnar portion, and the slightly larger tip, the _____.
root; shaft; body; glans penis
The penis consists largely of three long cylinders consisting of _____. Blood flow into this
tissue can be regulated: under resting conditions, blood delivery is just enough to provide
_____ and _____/_____ exchange.
erectile tissue; oxygen; nutrient;
The urethra travels through one of the erectile bodies: the _____.
During an erection, arteriole blood delivery to the two _____ and the _____ increases,
causing them to engorge with blood. This compresses the veins and venules which leave
these structures against the outer fibrous layer, the _____ of the erectile bodies.
corpora cavernosa; corpus
spongiosum; tunica albuginea
The changes in _____ that occur during erection cause the normally flaccid penis to
extend and stiffen as it _____. These events are controlled by the _____ nervous system.
blood flow; fills with blood;
The neurotransmitters responsible for penile erection are _____ and _____.
acetylcholine; nitric oxide (NO)
During penile erection, blood flow through the penis is _____; indeed, 'priapism,' or
abnormally prolonged erection, is an extremely painful condition that can lead to tissue
damage or tissue death.
Penile erection is required for _____, but may also occur in response to other stimuli such
as _____; it also occurs during certain phases of the _____.
sexual intercourse; bladder
fullness; sleep cycle
Ejaculation is controlled by the _____ nervous system. Normally, erection precedes
sexual activity and ejaculation, but the two events are distinct and may occur separately.
The glans penis is hidden by an encircling fold of skin called the _____; for various
cultural reasons, this is often removed in a procedure called _____.
prepuce OR foreskin;
During the formation of sperm, each cell division brings the sperm-to-be closer to the
_____ of the _____.
lumen; seminiferous tubule
The cells which are farthest from the lumen, and which divide only by mitosis, are the
During childhood, spermatogonia divide only to increase their number. After puberty, each
division produces one replacement cell called a(n) _____ and one _____, which is
destined to change with each division, ultimately forming mature sperm.
type A daughter cell; type B
After its formation, each type B cell is pushed _____ of the seminiferous tubule. It soon
reaches a point at which it is ready to divide again, and here this cell is called a(n) _____.
toward the lumen; primary
Each primary spermatocyte passes through meiosis, producing four _____; these are
cells which contain the genetic material that they need to be sperm cells, but which do not
yet have the correct structure. (A(n) _____ Isn't Diploid.)
The process by which spermatids mature to become sperm is called _____. A mnemonic:
I'm almost done, I Only need to mature.
Spermatogonia, their daughter cells, primary spermatocytes, and spermatids are all (as a
group) called _____.
The sperm that are released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules seem mature in
many ways, but even if they are somehow included in the ejaculate, they will not be able
The sperm is a specialized cell which swims well by using ATP supplied by many
mitochondria in the _____; a long _____, or flagellum, for propulsion; and a bullet shaped
_____ which contains the _____ to deliver the genetic material to the egg.
midpiece; tail; head; DNA
In addition to the DNA, the head of the sperm (at its very tip) also contains the _____, a
specialized lysosome which contains enzymes which are released on impact with an egg,
allowing the sperm to _____.
acrosome; penetrate the egg's
_____ surround each seminiferous tubule. The tight junctions between these cells prevent
contact between the _____ and the _____, which would result in destruction of the sperm
by the immune system.
Sertoli or sustentacular cells;
_____ surround the spermatids and immature sperm until they are released into the
lumen of the seminiferous tubule; they provide it with nutrition, guide its movements, and
secrete the testicular fluid which provides nutrients and growth signals.
Sertoli or sustentacular cells
Spermatogenesis and testosterone release are controlled by the hypothalamus, which
releases _____, a hormone that indirectly stimulates both processes.
GnRH binds to receptors in the _____, which releases _____ and _____ in response.
anterior pituitary; follicle
stimulating hormone (FSH);
luteinizing hormone (LH)
FSH stimulates _____ cells to release _____; this in turn causes the _____ to increase
their binding of, and thus response to, testosterone.
Sertoli or sustentacular;
androgen binding protein
(ABP); spermatogenic cells
LH stimulates _____ to release _____.
interstitial cells OR Leydig cells;
. Sperm maturation depends upon _____, the hormone which controls it.
GnRH secretion is inhibited by the last hormone in the sequence of hormones which it
controls: _____. Its release is also inhibited by _____, a hormone released by the Sertoli
(or sustentacular) cells when the sperm count is _____.
testosterone; inhibin; too high
Testosterone is active without chemical change in many cells in the body, including the
_____ (which enlarge) and _____ (which becomes denser). In other cells it must be
converted to another form, _____, in order to have an effect.
muscles; skeleton; DHT