Malfunctioning Brains Flashcards Preview

Year 11 Psychology-Semester 1 > Malfunctioning Brains > Flashcards

Flashcards in Malfunctioning Brains Deck (48):
1

What are some common causes of brain damage?

Head injuries, stroke, anoxia (damage due to lack of oxygen), concussions

2

What is a concussion?

Where a person experiences loss of consciousness for a period of time, may lead to temporary or permanent memory loss or permanent brain damage.

3

What effect can mild concussions have?

Can disrupt the process of memory consolidation and cause retrograde amnesia (forgetting events that take place prior to head injury) as well as anterograde amnesia (Inability to remember events that occurred after the trauma).

4

Boxers receive many hits to the head throughout their careers. What effects may this have on their brain?

Can lead to brain damage and result in a range of impairments such as poor memory, permanently slurred speech and other cognitive deficits. This condition is referred to as an athlete being 'punch-drunk'

5

What is adaptive plasticity?

The ability of the brain to change, adapt and grow throughout life. It enables older brain to be modified through experience or learning.

6

What influences the development of synapse in adolescence?

Adults will continue to develop synapses as a result of learning and new experiences: stimulating experiences and environment shape the construction and remodelling of a person's brain throughout life.

7

Stem cells will continue to create what?

They continue to make neurons, to enable the brain to adapt and cope with any new experiences

8

What is a factor that can keep the brain active?

Different cognitive activities, leaving the brain with more plastic throughout life.

9

Who was Cameron Mott and her case?

She had half her brain removed to stop her from suffering seizures, and since had a full recovery.
Cameron was having 10 seizures a day and she was losing her ability to speak. She was diagnosed with Rasmussen's syndrome in 2007, which is a rare disorder that causes deterioration on one side of the brain, for cameron her right side.
The doctor's believed it to be an effective surgery to remover half her brain, as she was a child, she had efficient plasticity, which enabled the other side of her brain to take over and control the function of the diseased half that's removed.
After two years, Cameron walked out of the hospital after extensive physical therapy.

10

What are some common causes of brain damage?

Head injuries, stroke, anoxia (damage due to lack of oxygen), concussions

11

What is a concussion?

Where a person experiences loss of consciousness for a period of time, may lead to temporary or permanent memory loss or permanent brain damage.

12

What effect can mild concussions have?

Can disrupt the process of memory consolidation and cause retrograde amnesia (forgetting events that take place prior to head injury) as well as anterograde amnesia (Inability to remember events that occurred after the trauma).

13

Boxers receive many hits to the head throughout their careers. What effects may this have on their brain?

Can lead to brain damage and result in a range of impairments such as poor memory, permanently slurred speech and other cognitive deficits. This condition is referred to as an athlete being 'punch-drunk'

14

What is adaptive plasticity?

The ability of the brain to change, adapt and grow throughout life. It enables older brain to be modified through experience or learning.

15

What influences the development of synapse in adolescence?

Adults will continue to develop synapses as a result of learning and new experiences: stimulating experiences and environment shape the construction and remodelling of a person's brain throughout life.

16

Stem cells will continue to create what?

They continue to make neurons, to enable the brain to adapt and cope with any new experiences

17

The Cameron Mott case:

She was a young child who had half her brain removed, due to suffering of continuous daily seizures and her decreasing ability to speak. Since the surgery she has made full recovery.
She initially was diagnosed with Rasmessen's Syndrome in 2007, which is a rare disorder that causes deterioration on side of the brain, for Cameron, this was her right side. The treatment involved a hemispheretomy (removal of entire right side of brain), which was a 7 hr surgery.
Doctors' believed that the procedure was appropriate for Cameron as she was a child with efficient plasticity, that would eventually adapt to take over the other side of the brain and control its function of the diseased half removed.

18

How long did it take Cameron to recover?

It took two days of complete immobilisation, then four weeks of intense physical therapy, before Cameron walked out of the hospital.

19

Does Cameron Mott face any issue prior to surgery?

She has had no more seizures, and now has a slight limp as her body is still learning to control her hands and legs, and she has losses some of her peripheral vision.

20

What is aphasia? And what can it affect?

Aphasia is the impairment of language caused by damage to the brain.
It can affect talking, reading, writing and understanding others, but doesn't affect intelligence. People commonly with aphasia will struggle with relationships and self identity.

21

What are the two types of aphasia?

- Broca's Aphasia: damage to left frontal lobe
- Wernicke's Aphasia: damage to left temporal lobe
BOTH IMPAIR LANGUAGE DIFFERENTLY

22

What is Broca's aphasia?

Is damage to the brain in the left frontal lobe, in the speech production area of the brain. It was Paul Broca, who discovered this area of the brain, after conducting an autopsy on his patient 'Tan'. The patient was unable to speak, and after the autopsy he discovered damage to Tan's left hemisphere. Paul Broca was able to state this area being responsible for the functioning of speech production. He studied 8 other patient afterward, finding similar brain damage.

23

What is Broca's area a result of damage to?

Broca's area, areas around is known as expressive aphasia

24

A person with Broca's aphasia will struggle with what?

They will have difficulty with expressing themselves in words or sentences but their ability to comprehend speech is largely unaffected.
Typically, little speech is produced, and tends to be very slow. Words are usually generated with considerable effort and are poorly articulated, short words are usually left out.

25

What are some characteristics of Broca's aphasia?

- speech is non-fluent: pauses between words, speech tends to be broken down
- partial or complete loss of ability to recall names
- mispronunciation
- Speech lacks grammar: speech is limited
- difficulty with writing

26

What is a major ability that Broca's patients have?

They may be able to speak well-rehearsed phrases, recite poems, sing, and even curse and swear with relative ease. Usually these phrases are spontaneous or well memorised and require little conscious effort.
Their ability to vocalise isn't lost, but their ability to translate information in speech patterns and express meanings is compromised.

27

Can patients recover form an injury to the Broca's area?

After 12 months some people may gain a few words back or even recover spontaneously. If there's no improvement after a few years, it's unlikely they may improve. Though studies have proven that the Broca's area functions, may be able to develop in a different region of the brain following injury, and is known as plasticity of the brain.

28

What is Wernicke's aphasia?

Results from damage to wrenches area, located in the left temporal lobe near the parietal lobe boundary. These people are cut off by language- what they hear is gibberish to them and what they say sounds like gibberish.

29

If someone has Wernicke's aphasia, what will they have difficulty with?

Understanding written and spoken language, and in producing written and spoken language, and in producing written and spoken language that makes sense to others. Speech is fluent, but does not make sense. The words are fluent and flow one after another, but combinations of words make one sense.

30

What is receptive aphasia ?

A misleading term for Wernicke's aphasia because the difficulty is not just limited to understanding language- the same problem makes it hard to produce meaningful language.

31

What are some characteristics of Wernicke's aphasia?

- speech is fluent and flows smoothly
- there is partial or complete loss of the ability to recall names (anomia)
- nonsense words are used
- difficulty understanding both written and spoken language
- difficulty producing both written and spoken language that makes sense to others

32

Compare between Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia:

People with Wernicke's aphasia often seem blissfully unaware that what they say does not make sense or that they have not correctly understood what others are saying. Though are able to read a possible body language.
People that have recovered from Broca's aphasia, report that they were able to understand and reason as they could before the brain damage, but they were simply unable to express themselves. These individuals tend to be angrier and unhappier than those with Wernicke's aphasia.

33

What has aphasia case studies contributed to science?

They have shown us that language can be compromised in different ways depending on which area of the brain has been damaged and the severity of this damage. It has also revealed that language and speech functions are primary performed in the left hemisphere of the brain.

34

What is spatial neglect? A.K.A Neglect syndrome

A disorder in which the person affected systematically ignores stimuli on one side of their body. There is usually spatial neglect after brain injury. Usually damage in the rear of the right parietal lobe, which results in the person ignoring stimuli on their left side.

35

Spatial neglect mainly relates to:

Visual stimuli.
They are 'blind', but not ordinary blindness because the eyes function normally. Most sufferers are blissfully unaware that they have a deficit, while others may know they have problems.

36

What is anosognosia?

A condition in which the person is unaware that they suffer from a serious condition (usually as a result of brain damage).

37

What may a person with spatial neglect find difficult?

They may see a compound word such as toothpick and baseball and only read it as ball and pick. They may even draw the right side of a picture and fail to notice people walking up to them to their left.

38

What has spatial neglect studies have helped contribute:

Many possibilities have identified and studies have suggested that a widespread network of areas and neural pathways are involved its the effects of spatial neglect

39

What is split brain studies?

Studies, patients undergo surgery to serve the corpus callosum, and thick band of about 200 million nerve fibres connecting the right and left hemispheres.

40

Define invasive method :

Where the experimenter physically interferes with the brain

41

Define non-invasive methods :

Where the brain is researched without physical interference

42

What are the current methods to investigate the brain?

The invasive method and non-invasive method

43

What is commisurotomy?

The split brain surgery/operation. It prevents communication between the two hemispheres high up in the cortex.

44

What is meant, if a patient is considered to have a split brain? And why it occurs

Two sides of the brain is connected at the subcritical (deeper) level but the cerebral hemispheres are seperate do.
This invasive method is a last resort to prevent the spread of severe epileptic seizure from one side o the brain to the other.

45

What may occur after split brain surgery?

The brains two hemispheres act as two independent brains.

46

Explain Sperry and Gazzaniga's experiment:

Used knowledge of visual pathways form the retina in the eye to the brain to devise the experimental situation in which split brain patients responses could indicate the functions of the left and right hemispheres. Split brain patients have the ability to move their eyes, allowing the visual information to fall on both halves of the retina. Therefore, info is sent to both sides of the brain (applies to ears too).

47

What was Sperry's idea?

To present visual images to one some if the visual field fir a brief period (0.1 sec), before the eyes could move, so that the image fell on only half of the retina.

48

What does the women wth the alien hand highlight?

That the two hemispheres need to share info, as this can resolve in miscommunication